Photographer's Note

Pennsylvania Dutch Country

refers to an area of southeastern Pennsylvania that by
the American Revolution had a high percentage of
Lutheran, German Reformed, Moravian, Amish, Mennonite
and other German sectarian inhabitants and where the
Deitsch language was historically common. The term was
used in the middle of the 20th century as a
description of a region with a distinctive
Pennsylvania Dutch culture, but in recent decades the
composition of the population is changing and the
phrase is used more now in a tourism context than any

Geographically the area referred to as Dutch country
centers around Allentown, Hershey, Lancaster, Reading
and York and the surrounding counties. It includes the
counties of Chester, Lancaster, York, Adams, Franklin,
Dauphin, Lebanon, Berks, Montgomery, Bucks,
Northampton, Lehigh, Schuylkill, Snyder, Union,
Juniata, Mifflin, Huntingdon, Northumberland, and
Centre. Pennsylvania Dutch immigrants would spread
from this area outwards outside the Pennsylvania
borders between the mountains along river valleys into
neighboring Maryland (Washington and Frederick
counties), West Virginia, Virginia (Shenandoah Valley)
and North Carolina and this larger region has been
historically referred to as Greater Pennsylvania. The
historic Pennsylvania Dutch diaspora in Ontario has
been referred to as Little Pennsylvania.

The country lies in the Piedmont region of the
Appalachian mountains. The landscape is marked by
rolling, wooded hills, deep stream valleys, and
fertile soils. The Susquehanna River bisects the
region and provides its drainage.

The term "Dutch" is an archaic term for Germans, and
refers to the German-speaking origins of some of the
earliest European immigrants to the area in the late
17th and 18th centuries. The German-speaking settlers
came from a variety of countries and religious
backgrounds, but most became assimilated to Anglo-
American language and culture beginning in the later
19th century with English language evangelism efforts,
the outlawing of German language schooling and
culminating soon after the turn of the twentieth
century with World War One, consolidated schools and
the advent of mandatory public education until the age
of 16 with added pressures from increased mobility,
the influence of English language media communications
and urbanization.

The Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonites, who have
resisted these efforts most successfully, have
retained aspects from their 18th-century way of life,
including the Deitsch dialect; however, these groups
have changed significantly in the last two hundred
years. Nevertheless, for the Old Order groups, change
has come slower, and gradually they have become more
and more distinctively different as the surrounding
rural and urban population of Pennsylvania changed.



Kameramodell Canon EOS 40D
Aufnahmedatum/-zeit 01.10.2008 11:20:20
Aufnahmemodus P (Programmautomatik)
Tv (Verschlusszeit) 1/400
Av (Blendenzahl) 11.0
Messmodus Mehrfeldmessung
Belichtungskorrektur 0
Filmempfindlichkeit (ISO) 200
Objektiv EF-S17-85mm f/4-5.6 IS USM
Brennweite 85.0 mm
Bildgröße 3888x2592
Bildqualität Fein
Blitz Aus
Weißabgleich Automatisch
AF-Betriebsart One-Shot AF
Bildstil Landschaft
Schärfe 4
Kontrast 0
Farbsättigung 0
Farbton 0
Farbraum sRGB
Rauschreduzierung bei Langzeitbelichtung 2:Ein
High ISO Rauschreduzierung 1:Ein
Tonwert Priorität 1:Möglich
Dateigröße 2315 KB
Transportart Reihenaufnahme mit geringer Geschwindigkeit

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Additional Photos by Txxx Bxxx (thor68) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 760 W: 151 N: 919] (5586)
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