Photographer's Note

Byblos (جُبَيْل) is almost not known on TE, there are just a few photos and they were posted a long time ago. And it is a very interesting city, Unesco Heritage Site.rnrnByblos is believed to have been first occupied between 8800 and 7000 BC and continuously inhabited since 5000 BC, making it one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. During its history, Byblos was part of numerous civilizations, including Egyptian, Phoenician, Assyrian, Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Fatimid, Genoese, Mamluk and Ottomans.

Located about 42 km north of Beirut, Byblos is attractive to archaeologists because of the successive layers of debris resulting from centuries of human habitation. rnrnArchaeological evidence at Byblos, particularly the five Byblian royal inscriptions dating back to around 1200–1000 BC, shows the existence of a Phoenician alphabet of twenty-two characters; an important example is the Ahiram sarcophagus. The use of the alphabet was spread by Phoenician merchants through their maritime trade into parts of North Africa and Europe. One of the most important monuments of this period is the Temple of the Obelisks, dedicated to the Canaanite war god Resheph, but this had fallen into ruins by the time of Alexander the Great.rnrn In the 3rd century, a small but impressive theater was constructed.
The Crusader castle of Gibelet, along with the fortified town, served as an important military base for the Crusaders. The remains of the castle are among the most impressive architectural structures now visible in the town centre. The town was taken by Saladin in 1187, re-taken by the Crusaders, and conquered by Baibars in 1266.

Byblos's inhabitants are predominantly Christian, mostly Maronite, with minorities of Armenian Apostolic, Greek Orthodox, and Greek Catholics. There is also a minority of Shia Muslims.
In the main photo ruins of the Crusaders' castle. rnIn Workshop #1 - the Temple of the Obelisks. rnIn Workshop #2 - just the romantic view.

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Additional Photos by Malgorzata Kopczynska (emka) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 13894 W: 141 N: 35959] (161186)
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