Photographer's Note

Actually: Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede & thousands of Rigolettos around them :))

Jupiter has 63 confirmed moons, giving it the largest retinue of moons with "reasonably secure" orbits of any planet in the Solar System. The most massive of them, the four Galilean moons, were discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei and were the first objects found to orbit a body that was neither Earth nor the Sun. From the end of the 19th century, dozens of much smaller Jovian moons have been discovered and have received the names of lovers, conquests, or daughters of the Roman god Jupiter, or his Greek equivalent, Zeus.

The Galilean moons of Jupiter (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto) were named by Simon Marius soon after their discovery in 1610. However, until the 20th century these fell out of favor, and instead they were referred to in the astronomical literature simply as "Jupiter I", "Jupiter II", etc., or as "the first satellite of Jupiter", "Jupiter's second satellite", and so on. The names Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto became popular in the 20th century, while the rest of the moons, usually numbered in Roman numerals V (5) through XII (12), remained unnamed. By a popular though unofficial convention, Jupiter V, discovered in 1892, was given the name Amalthea, first used by the French astronomer Camille Flammarion.

The moons' physical and orbital characteristics vary widely. The four Galileans are all over 3000 km in diameter; the largest Galilean, Ganymede, is the largest object in the Solar System outside the Sun and the eight planets. All other Jovian moons are less than 250 km in diameter, with most barely exceeding five km. Even Europa, the smallest of the Galileans, is five thousand times more massive than all the non-Galilean moons combined. Orbital shapes range from nearly perfectly circular to highly eccentric and inclined, and many revolve in the direction opposite to Jupiter's spin (retrograde motion). Orbital periods range from seven hours (taking less time than Jupiter does to spin around its axis), to some 3000 times more (almost three Earth years).


Taken in Camera Obscura of Edinburgh. This is a huge caleidoscope, centering the large sphere with ever changing colors and visual effects on it. Everywhere else is surrounded by mirrors, forming interesting visuals all the time. It was fun making photos over there...

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Additional Photos by Deniz Taskin (rigoletto) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 3085 W: 400 N: 6725] (34279)
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