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Photographer's Note

I took this shot inside Guartelá State Park, 215km from Curitiba. Unfortunately I don't know the name of this waterfall. It's one of the main attractions though. You can visit the park in one day, it's not that big but there are some activities like rafting or trekking that you should set appointments previously. I'm not good about geology so the text below must be more useful than my silly words (just in case you want more info):

The Guartelá Canyon is a rectilinear gorge with an extension of approximately 30 km and a maximum depth of 450 meters. It was carved out by the River Iapó, which uses the canyon to overcome the Devonian Escarpment, a cuesta that separates the First and Second Paraná Plateaux. The River Iapó is a right bank affluent of the River Tibagi, which flows into the Paranapanema River, part of the Paraná River basin. The Iapó is an impressive example of an antecedent river, which has its source on the First Paraná Plateau to the east, breaks the Devonian Escarpment via the Guartelá Canyon, and advances to the west-northwest. The Canyon is controlled by long ruptile structures (faults, fractures), sometimes with intrusive diabase dykes and related rocks, in a NW-SE direction, connected to the Ponta Grossa Arch, reactivated in the Mesozoic period. The Guartelá Canyon escarpments are supported by the Furnas Sandstone (Devonian of the Paraná Basin), whose excellent exposure enables it to be subdivided into three sub-units with distinctive characteristics. Under the Furnas Sandstone, the Iapó Formation (Silurian, basal unit of the Paraná Basin region) and the Castro Group (volcano-sedimentary sequence of the Ordovician period) appear. The River Iapó flows over these rocks, forming many waterfalls and stretches of white water. The Furnas Sandstone presents considerable differential erosion, controlled by the change in rock attributes, sedimentary and ruptile structures, causing a bizarre ruiniform relief. Caves formed by the Castro Group (Gruta da Pedra Ume) and many caves of the Furnas Sandstone forming natural shelters where cave paintings, lithic artefacts and ceramic remains of paleoindians are found, occur in this region. As well as this, the poor, shallow soil of the Furnas Sandstone and the cuesta relief barrier have favoured the preservation of remains of scrubland (savanna), a form of vegetation formerly widespread in the region.

This is a scanned image.

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Additional Photos by Carlos CB (belido) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 5207 W: 315 N: 5056] (19934)
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