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The history of wine spans thousands of years and is closely intertwined with the history of agriculture, cuisine, civilization and humanity itself. Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known wine production occurred in Georgia around 8,000 BC, with other notable sites in Iran and Armenia dated 7,000 BC and 6000 BC, respectively.[1][2][3] The archaeological evidence becomes clearer and points to domestication of grapevine in Early Bronze Age sites of the Near East, Sumer and Egypt from around the third millennium BC.[4]

Evidence of the earliest wine production in the Balkans has been uncovered at archaeological sites in Macedonia, dated to 6,500 years ago.[5][6] These same sites also contain remnants of the world's earliest evidence of crushed grapes.[5] In Egypt, wine became a part of recorded history, playing an important role in ancient ceremonial life. Traces of wild wine dating from the second and first millennium BC have also been found in China.[7]

Wine, tied in myth to Dionysus/Bacchus, was common in ancient Greece and Rome,[8] and many of the major wine-producing regions of Western Europe today were established with Phoenician and later Roman plantations.[9] Wine-making technology, such as the wine press, improved considerably during the time of the Roman Empire; many grape varieties and cultivation techniques were known and barrels were developed for storing and shipping wine.[9]
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Ani Tamer Yilmaz

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