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Photographer's Note

Bodrum Castle is is one of Bodrum’s most recognizable landmarks. The castle is also one of the world’s finest museums of underwater archeology housed in a superb 15th century castle built by the Knights of St. John of Rhodes. The world’s oldest known shipwreck exhibition is now open. This star attraction rates a ‘must see’ on everyone’s list.
The construction of the castle started in 1402 under the German knight-architect Heinrich Schlegelholt. Construction workers were guaranteed a reservation in Heaven by a papal decree of 1409. They used squared green volcanic stone, marble columns and reliefs from the nearby Mausoleum of Maussollos to fortify the castle.
For over a century St. Peter’s Castle remained the second most important castle of the Order. It served as a refuge for all Christians in Asia Minor.
The castle came under attack with the rise of the Ottoman Empire, first after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and again in 1480 by sultan Mehmed II. The attacks were repelled by the Knights.
In June 1522 the sultan attacked the Order’s headquarters in Rhodes from the Bay of Marmaris with 200,000 soldiers. The castle of Rhodes fell in December 1522. The terms of surrender included the handing over of the Knights’ fortresses in Kos and St Peter’s Castle in Bodrum.
After the surrender, the chapel was turned into a mosque and a minaret was added. This mosque was called the Süleymaniye Camii, as attested by a traveler Evliya Chelebi, who visited Bodrum in 1671. The minaret was destroyed on 26 May 1915 by rounds fired by a French warship during the World War I. It has been reconstructed in its original shape in 1997.
Today Bodrum Castle is open to the public and it houses Bodrum’s remarkable Museum of Underwater Archaeology and also hosts several Turkish cultural festivals throughout the year.

IL CASTELLO DI BODRUM
Il castello San Pietro (derivante dal latino Petreum), sito a Bodrum (Turchia), è un bell'esempio d'architettura crociata in Oriente.
Nel 1402, Tamerlano penetra in Asia Minore. Infligge presso Ankara una disastrosa rotta alle truppe ottomane del Sultano Bajazet (Bayazîd). I Cavalieri dell'Ordine dell'Ospedale (o cavalieri di Rodi), essi stessi cacciati da Smirne da Tamerlano, approfittarono della disorganizzazione susseguente alla disfatta turca per installarsi nel sito dell'antica Alicarnasso (oggi Bodrum), dove avviarono, probabilmente a partire dal 1403 l'ingrandimento della piccola cittadella.
La costruzione di ciò che essi chiameranno "Castello San Pietro" durerà circa un secolo. Una parte delle pietre utilizzate, di colore verdastro, proviene dall'antico Mausoleo di Alicarnasso, che un terremoto aveva finito col distruggere del tutto nel XIV secolo.
Il castello San Pietro sarà consegnato agli Ottomani nel quadro dell'accordo sottoscritto fra il Gran Maestro dell'Ordine, Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, e Solimano il Magnifico dopo la resa di Rodi a fine dicembre 1522. Il castello ospiterà da quel momento una semplice guarnigione e servirà da prigione.
Il nome di San Pietro, Petreum in latino, sarà deformato in Bodrum dai Turchi (che non conoscono la consonante "p", da essi sostituita dalla "b").
Oggi il castello è aperto alle visite in quanto trasformato in museo, in cui sono esposti diversi oggetti provenienti dai relitti delle navi colate a picco nelle vicinanze, nonché oggetti risalenti all'età del bronzo. Ospita altresì l'Istituto d'archeologia marina.

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Photo Information
  • Copyright: Luciano Gollini (lousat) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 18049 W: 140 N: 29442] (140656)
  • Genre: Places
  • Medium: Color
  • Date Taken: 2009-07-03
  • Categories: Architecture
  • Exposure: f/8, 1/250 seconds
  • More Photo Info: view
  • Photo Version: Original Version
  • Date Submitted: 2009-07-14 7:13
Viewed: 2144
Points: 42
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Additional Photos by Luciano Gollini (lousat) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 18049 W: 140 N: 29442] (140656)
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