Photographer's Note

17.02.2007 - Noise Reduce
The photo was taken in Jerusalem from David Tower.

The Tower of David is Jerusalem's "citadel", a historical and archaeological site of world importance.
This is a medieval fortress, with later additions. Its towers and ramparts offer splendid views of that part of Jerusalem where Old and New meet, and East meets West. The site of the citadel has always been the weak point in the city's defenses, compelling its rulers throughout history to fortify the site.
This important historical and archeological site was built in the First Temple Period (960586 BC). Parts of a tower and the city wall were built by the Hasmonean (first century BC). The base of the tower was built by Herod the Great (3734 BC).
In the 2nd century BC, Jerusalem expanded to the so-called Western Hill, on which the citadel now stands. Since the site was the weak point in the city's natural defenses, its fortification was of paramount importance to all rulers of Jerusalem, each of whom built on the ruins of the earlier structures.
The Hasmonean kings fortified the area with an impressive wall and large watchtowers, which the historian Josephus Flavius (1st century AD) refers to as the First Wall. King Herod the Great, who ruled in the late 1st century BC, added three massive towers to the Hasmonean fortifications.
Their purpose was not only to defend the entrance to the city, but his own royal palace nearby. Of the three towers, only one the Phasael tower has survived, and still stands to a great height today.
Following the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 AD, the site served as barracks for the Roman troops.
With the adoption of Christianity as the imperial religion in the 4th century, a community of monks established itself there.
The Muslims, upon conquering Jerusalem in 638 AD, built a fortress on the site. The powerful Muslim fortress withstood the assault of the Crusaders in 1099 and surrendered only when its defenders were guaranteed safe passage out of the city.
The Crusaders built a large new citadel, surrounded by a moat, which also served as the seat of the Crusader King of Jerusalem.
In the 13th century, the citadel was again destroyed, and rebuilt in the 14th by the Mamluks. The citadel underwent further changes under the rule of the Ottoman Turkish (1516-1917). An impressive entrance was built, behind which was a cannon emplacement. The prominent minaret was added which, in time, would become known as the 'Tower of David'. For 400 years the citadel served to garrison Turkish troops.
The British army entered Jerusalem in December 1917, and it was on the platform outside the entrance to the citadel that General Allenby addressed the local inhabitants and declared freedom of worship in the Holy City.
The Pro-Jerusalem Society, established by the British High Commissioner to protect the city's cultural heritage, cleaned and renovated the citadel and opened it to the public as a venue for concerts, benefit events and exhibitions by local artists.
In the 1930s, a museum of Palestinian folklore was opened in the citadel, displaying traditional crafts and clothing.
After Israel's war of Independence in 1948, the citadel reverted to its traditional role as a military position of the Jordanian Arab Legion, as it had a dominant view across the armistice line into Jewish Jerusalem.
With the unification of Jerusalem in 1967 after the Six Days War, the citadel's cultural role was revived.

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Additional Photos by Alex Shainshein (s_a_s_h_a) Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 89 W: 25 N: 148] (607)
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