Photographer's Note

Horse-driven mill, Vámosoroszi

The circumstances of the mill construction are unknown. It is first mentioned in the 1840s in the records of the Vámosoroszi Protestant parish. The congregation planned to set up a mill, then decided on buying the one in Csengöld (Szatmár County). They bought and transplanted the equipment in gear and its building in 1846 into their own village. The mill was sometimes leased out, sometimes operated by the parish itself. Up to 1886 wheat or maize was ground or millet was scoured in it. In the same year an oil mill was also purchased, again in Csengöld, and added to the horse-mill. That's how they operated up to 1948 when they were closed down. The mill was acquired by the Open-air Museum in 1967 and re-erected in 1979 in its pre-1886 state, i.e. without the oil mill.
The horse-mill consists of the horse-walk and the milling house. The former holds the driving wheel of 370 cogs turned by two or four horses walking between the wheel-arms under the conical shingle roof. Its central element is the main shaft whose bottom pivot revolves in the sleeve of the timber base and the one on top surrounded by the barring. The milling house protrudes from the horse-walk towards the square. The grooved post and board structure rests on groundsills. Its most important part is the stone ledge overhanging the horse-walk. The fine-grinding stone and the hoppers above are on its right and the rough-grinding stone on its left. Fine-ground flour flowed into the flour chest. The equipment of the mill was reconstructed on the basis church inventories.
The horse-driven mill in Vámosoroszi represents the type most widely used in Hungary under the feudal system. Even in 1863 not less than 7966 horse-mills were registered. The independence of horsepower from the weather explains its popularity. The appearance of steam mills, however, at the end of the 19th century gradually squeezed them out of use.

Workshop - other version

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Additional Photos by George Rumpler (Budapestman) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 8900 W: 3 N: 20435] (82620)
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