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Photographer's Note

Manastiri Meteori (grč. Μετέωρα) je skupina pravoslavnih manastira u blizini grčkog grada Kalambake, u zapadnoj Tesaliji. Manastiri su veoma poznati po svom nesvakidašnjem položaju na stenama-stubovima i smatraju se najvrednijom skupinom manastira u Grčkoj posle Svete gore. Meteori su i na spisku kulturne baštine UNESKOa.

Manastiri

Ukupno postoji 6 manastira, pet muških i jedan ženski. To su:
manastir Veliki Meteor ili Preobraženjski manastir
manastir Varalam
Manastir sv. Varvare ili Rusanu manastir
Manastir sv. Nikole Anapauskog
Manastir sv. Stefana
Manastir sv. Trojice

Poreklo naziva

Grčki naziv "Μετέωρα" znači "lebdeće" ili "okačeno kamenje", u smislu "kamenje koje lebdi u raju".

Istorija

Smatra se da su još u 11. veku ovde boravili monasi-pustinjaci, a tokom sledećih vekova počelo vaspostavljanje manastira. Njihov pravi procvat počinje dolaskom otomanske okupacije u ove krajeve, jer je ovako skriveno područje među ogromnim stenama-stubovima omogućilo primereno odstojanje od nove, neprijateljske vlasti. Upočetku bilo je čak 20 manastira, ali je danas svega 6 preostalo. U prvom razdoblju dolazak do manastira bio je izuzetno težak - preko kožnih lestvica ili putem ogromnih mreža, ali ovo je omogućilo nesmetan život i molitvu monaha. Početkom 20. veka do manastira su isklesane stepenice. Poslednjih decenija manastiri su postali mesto hodočašća i turističke posete.
Geografske odlike

Nauka govori da su stene-stubovi stare oko 60 miliona godina i da su nastale tokom Tercijara. Vreme i zemljotresi su oblikovali masu u stene današnjeg oblika.

English
This article is about the Greek Orthodox monasteries. For the Linkin Park album, see Meteora (album).
Metéora*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

State Party Greece
Type Mixed
Criteria i, ii, iv, v, vii
Reference 455
Region** Europe
Coordinates 39°42′N 21°37′E
Inscription history
Inscription 1988 (12th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.
The Metéora (Greek: Μετέωρα, "suspended rocks", "suspended in the air" or "in the heavens above") is one of the largest and most important complexes of Eastern Orthodox monasteries in Greece, second only to Mount Athos. The six monasteries are built on natural sandstone rock pillars, at the northwestern edge of the Plain of Thessaly near the Pineios river and Pindus Mountains, in central Greece. The nearest town is Kalambaka. The Metéora is included on the UNESCO World Heritage List under criteria I, II, IV, V and VII.

History

The Theopetra caves 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) south of Meteora had inhabitants fifty millennia ago. The cave of Theopetra, Kalambaka, radiocarbon evidence for 50,000 years of human presence, Radiocarbon 43(2B): 1029-1048.[citation needed][clarification needed]
In the 9th century, an ascetic group of hermit monks moved up to the ancient pinnacles.
They were the first people to inhabit Metéora. They lived in hollows and fissures in the rock towers, some of which reach 1800 ft (550m) above the plain. This great height, combined with the sheerness of the cliff walls, kept away all but the most determined visitors. Initially the hermits led a life of solitude, meeting only on Sundays and special days to worship and pray in a chapel built at the foot of a rock known as Dhoupiani. As early as the 11th century AD hermit monks were believed to be living among the caves and cutouts in the rocks.
The exact date of the establishment of the monasteries is unknown. By the late 11th and early 12th century, a rudimentary monastic state had formed called the Skete of Stagoi and was centered around the still-standing church of Theotokos (mother of God). By the end of the 12th century, an ascetic community had flocked to Metéora.
In 1344, Athanasios Koinovitis from Mount Athos brought a group of followers to Metéora. From 1356 to 1372, he founded the great Meteoron monastery on Broad Rock, which were perfect for the monks; they were safe from political upheaval and had complete control of the entry to the monastery. The only means of reaching it was by climbing a long ladder, which was drawn up whenever the monks felt threatened.
At the end of the 14th century, the Byzantine Empire's 800-year reign over northern Greece was being increasingly threatened by Turkish raiders who wanted control over the fertile plain of Thessaly. The hermit monks, seeking a retreat from the expanding Turkish occupation, found the inaccessible rock pillars of Meteora to be an ideal refuge. More than 20 monasteries were built, beginning in the 14th century.[1] Six remain today. There is a common belief that St. Athanasius (founder of the first monastery) did not scale the rock, but was carried there by an eagle.
In 1517, Nectarios and Theophanes built the monastery of Varlaám, which was reputed to house the finger of St John and the shoulder blade of St Andrew.
Access to the monasteries was originally (and deliberately) difficult, requiring either long ladders lashed together or large nets used to haul up both goods and people. This required quite a leap of faith – the ropes were replaced, so the story goes, only "when the Lord let them break". In the words of UNESCO, "The net in which intrepid pilgrims were hoisted up vertically alongside the 373 metres (1,224 ft) cliff where the Varlaam monastery dominates the valley symbolizes the fragility of a traditional way of life that is threatened with extinction." In the 1920s there was an improvement in the arrangements. Steps were cut into the rock, making the complex accessible via a bridge from the nearby plateau. During World War II the site was bombed and many art treasures were stolen.
Until the 17th century, the primary means of conveying goods and people from these eyries was by means of baskets and ropes.
Only six of the monasteries remain today. Of these six, five are inhabited by men, one by women. Each monastery has fewer than 10 inhabitants. The monasteries are now tourist attractions.

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