Photographer's Note

Located on a small hill at the mouth of the Cai River at Nha Trang, the temple Po Nagar is named for a goddess of local origin who is said to have created the earth, eaglewood, and rice. The temple was built during the Hindu period of Champa, and thus the image of the goddess takes the form of Uma, wife of Siva.

Po Nagar is used by Vietnamese from 1653
The first temple buildings were of wood, but were destroyed by seagoing raiders from Java around 774 A.D. The first brick structure, built ten years after the raid, is no longer extant. The earliest surviving structure is the mandapa -- it was built sometime before the inscription dated to 817, which mentions it. Tran Ky Phuong dates the small northwest tower to the 10th Century, and the main tower to the 11th Century.

In its most complete form, the complex probably consisted of 6 towers, in two parallel rows of three, but the south-west and center-west towers have vanished. The arrangement makes an interesting comparison with the brick towers of Lolei, near Angkor Wat in Cambodia, which were built at the end of the 8th Century.

Po Naga 1972

The major Chăm monuments in Việt Nam in my selected photo set as follows:

Bằng An Tower
Bnh t (Silver) Chăm Towers
Bnh Lm Chăm Tower and Thị Nại Citadel
Cnh Tin (Brass) Chăm Tower and Đồ Bn Citadel
Chin Đn Chăm Towers
Đồng Dương Citadel (Indrapura)
Dương Long (Ivory) Chăm Towers
Ha Lai Chăm Towers

Hưng Thạnh (Twin) Chăm Towers
Khương Mỹ Chăm Towers
Mỹ Sơn
Nhạn (Swallow) Chăm Tower
Ph Hải (P Xahnư) Chăm Towers
Phước Lốc (Gold) Chăm Tower
P Đam Chăm Towers
P Klng Garai Chăm Towers
P Nagar Chăm Towers
P R M Chăm Tower
Thủ Thiện Chăm Tower
Tr Kiệu Citadel (Simhapura)
Yang Prong Chăm Tower


Tham khao BS Tran Vinh Ky

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Additional Photos by Huy V Tran (huynt) Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 846 W: 15 N: 932] (5081)
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