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A "qala" is a fortress built of mud that served as an ancient citadel. There are a lot of ruins littering the Kyzyl Kum desert and the Karakalpak Republic. The most accessible fortresses are located in southeastern Karakalpakistan, about an hour north of Urgench.
The Ayaz Qala complex is composed of 3 monuments:
- Ayaz Qala 1, a defensive refuge dating from the 4th or early 3rd century BC, located on the top of a flat hill,
- Ayaz Qala 2, a feudal fort probably dating from the 6th to the 8th century AD, and
- Ayaz Qala 3, a fortified garrison and refuge, mainly dating from the 1st to 2nd centuries AD.

Much more infos here.

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