Photographer's Note

Mount Bromo (Indonesian: Gunung Bromo)- an active volcano in East Java, Indonesia. At 2,329 metres it is not the highest peak of the massif, but is the most well known. The massif area is one of the most visited tourist location at Java. The name of Bromo probably derived from Javanese pronunciation of Brahma, the Hindu creator god.
Mount Bromo sits in the middle of a vast plain called the "Sea of Sand" a protected nature reserve since 1919. The typical way to visit Mount Bromo is from the nearby mountain village of Cemoro Lawang. From there it was possible to walk to the volcano in about 45 minutes, but because of recent a present acitivity of the volcano is this path now closed and the only possibility is to climb by narrow path to the viewpoint under the peak of Mount Penanjakan (2,770m). The best views to the Mount Bromo, the Sand Sea below and the surrounding volcanoes ( Merapi) are at sunrise. We started our trip at 3.00 a.m.; outside was absolutely dark, temperature around 0 Celsius (previous day in Jogjakarta was 32 degrees) and after a few minutes we have been covered by volcano ash. But the result of our efford was perfect – unearthly view of active volcano, heavy clouds of ash, all going along with noisy acoustical effects....
Last Activity of Gunung Bromo startet at the end of the year 2010 and still continues.
The Tengger Caldera was still active in late January 2011, the activity being characterised by fluctuating ongoing eruptions. On 23 January 2011 the Indonesian Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) reported that since 19 December, 2010 volcanic ash and incandescent material had been thrown up by eruptive activity resulting in a heavy rain of material that fell around the crater. Due to high seasonal rainfall in January 2011 the potential for lava flow was raised due to the deposits of volcanic ash, sand and other ejected material that had built up. Seismic activity was dominated by tremor vibration and reports of visual intensity and sounds of eruption continued to be reported from the mountain monitoring facility, Bromo Observation Post. People were alerted to the possibility of lava flows, especially when it was raining heavily in the area around Cemorolawang, Ngadisari and Ngadirejo. Eruptions and volcanic tremors were reported on 21 January and 22 January with activity subsiding on 23 January 2011. On 23 January, 2011 at 06:00 am the alert status at Mount Bromo remained at (Level III). On 23 January 2011 an exclusion zone was recommended for communities living around Mount Bromo. Tourists and hikers were to advised not to come within a radius of 2 km from the active crater. CVGHM stated that they expected warning signs to be installed stating the limit radius of 2 km from the crater. CVGHM recommended the establishment of public areas for the provision of face masks and eye protection.
Further eruptions and the issuing of Aviation Ash advisories on 27 January and 28 January 2011 led to concerns being raised regarding a volcanic ash plume, reported to be drifting eastward toward the air corridors used to access the Ngurah Rai International Airport in Bali. Airport official Sherly Yunita was reported at the time as stating that concerns about visibility had prompted many airlines to cancel several flights to Bali, 340 km (210 mi) to the east.The Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre in Darwin, Australia indicated that ash was observed at altitudes up to 18,000 ft (FL180) extending 200 nautical mi to the south east of the caldera.

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Additional Photos by Jiri Vondracek (jiridracek) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 66 W: 0 N: 255] (2038)
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