Photographer's Note

In 1948, the Pakistan civilian government was totally ignorant of the Kashmir invasion, planned by hoardes of lawless tribesmen of the NWF, who indulged in murder and looting as they moved into the territory of Jammu and Kashmir. Jammu and Kashmir was then not a part of India. Maharaja Hari Singh then ruler of Jammu Kashmir had not decided whether Kashmir would be independent or be part of India or Pakistan. Khurshid Anwar, an ex-army officer, who was killed in the operation, was supposed to be the main organiser of this operation. The tribesmen were assured that the Indian army was too ill-organised to offer any counter offensive, so they could fight their war of freedom without fear. No one remembered that frontier rebels do not fight wars of freedom on behalf of other people. They settle their tribal disputes through looting, murder and devastation.

Seeing the wild Pathan tribesmen attack and loot Jammu Kashmir , Hari Singh decided to get help from India. He wanted India to counter attack the Pathan tribesmen. The Governor-General of India, Lord Mountbatten, lost no time in flying Indian troops to Kashmir, which had not acceded to India, to repel the tribal offensive. A civilian government was in office in Pakistan under Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. When the Indian army moved into Kashmir, the Quaid-i-Azam ordered the Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan army, General Douglas Gracey, to send Pakistan forces into Kashmir to confront the Indian army. General Gracey refused to carry out these orders because he was not willing to fight the Indian soldiers who were operating under the command of his senior, Lord Mountbatten. The British soldiers who had come to Pakistan with General Gracey threatened to resign if they were ordered to go to Kashmir.

Maharaja Hari Singh decided to sign paper and join India. The Indians captured a large part of Jammu and Kashmir and the tribesmen were driven out in disgrace. Thus Jammu Kashmir became part of India. It was Pakistan's biggest mistake in attacking Kashmir which resulted in losing Kashmir forever.The myth of civilian supremacy in a matter relating to war was thus destroyed by an army man.

(This poor harmless Pathan could be one of the decescendants of the Pathans (mountain tribesmen from Pakistan)who came in earlier. Note the Afghan features and you would recollect memories of Talibani men.)

Hope you like the portrait.

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Additional Photos by Satyakki Bhattacharjee (satyakki) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 94 W: 91 N: 128] (672)
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