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In philosophy of mind, dualism is the assumption that mental phenomena are, in some respects non-physical,[1] or that the mind and body are distinct.[2] Thus, it encompasses a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter, and is contrasted with other positions, such as physicalism, in the mind–body problem.[1][2]
Aristotle shared Plato's view of multiple souls, (ψυχή psychí) and further elaborated an hierarchical arrangement, corresponding to the distinctive functions of plants, animals and people: a nutritive soul of growth and metabolism, that all three share, a perceptive soul of pain, pleasure and desire, that only animals and people share, and the faculty of reason, that is unique to people only. In this view, a soul is the hylomorphic form of a viable organism, wherein each level of the hierarchy formally supervenes upon the substance of the preceding level. Thus, for Aristotle, all three souls perish when the living organism dies.[3][4] For Plato however, the soul was not dependent on the physical body, he believed in metempsychosis, the migration of the soul to a new physical body.[5]
Dualism is closely associated with the philosophy of René Descartes (1641), which holds that the mind is a nonphysical substance. Descartes clearly identified the mind with consciousness and self-awareness and distinguished this from the brain as the seat of intelligence.[6] Hence, he was the first to formulate the mind–body problem in the form in which it exists today.[7] Dualism is contrasted with various kinds of monism, including phenomenalism. Substance dualism is contrasted with all forms of materialism, but property dualism may be considered a form of emergent materialism or non-reductive physicalism in some sense. This article discusses the various forms of dualism and the arguments which have been made both for and against this thesis. Wikipedia.

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  • Copyright: Elias Castillo (manatee) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 903 W: 5 N: 1371] (4658)
  • Genre: Places
  • Medium: Color
  • Date Taken: 2011-09-18
  • Categories: Artwork
  • Exposure: f/3.5, 1/4 seconds
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  • Photo Version: Original Version
  • Date Submitted: 2012-01-16 2:13
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