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Photographer's Note

'Quebec City is one of the oldest European settlements in North America. While many of the major cities in Mexico date from the sixteenth century, among cities in Canada and the U.S.A. only St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador; Port Royal, Nova Scotia; St. Augustine, Florida; Santa Fe, New Mexico; Jamestown, Virginia; and Tadoussac, Quebec were created earlier than Quebec City. However, Quebec City is the first to have been founded with the goal of permanent settlement, and not as a commercial outpost, and therefore is considered to be the first European-built city in non-Spanish North America.

French explorer Jacques Cartier built a fort at the site in 1535, where he stayed for the winter before going back to France in spring 1536. He came back in 1541 with the goal of building a permanent settlement. This first settlement was abandoned less than one year after its foundation, in the summer 1542, due in large part to the hostility of the natives combined with the harsh living conditions during winter.

Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain, a French explorer and diplomat on July 3, 1608, and at the site of a long abandoned St. Lawrence Iroquoian settlement called Stadacona. Champlain, also called "The Father of New France",served as its administrator for the rest of his life.
Quebec City was captured by the British in 1759 and held until 1763. It was the site of three battles during Seven Years War - the Battle of Beauport, a French victory (July 31, 1759); the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, in which British troops under General James Wolfe defeated the French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm on September 13, 1759 and shortly thereafter took the city; and the final Battle of Sainte-Foy, a French victory (April 28, 1760). France ceded New France, including the city, to Britain in 1763.

At the end of French rule in 1763, the territory of present-day Quebec City was a world of contrasts. Forests, villages, fields and pastures surrounded the town of 8 000 inhabitants. The town distinguished itself by its monumental architecture, fortifications, muddy and filthy streets, affluent homes of masonry and shacks in the suburbs St-Jean and St-Roch. Despite its urbanity and its status as capital, Quebec City remained a small colonial city with close ties to its rural surroundings. Nearby inhabitants traded their farm surpluses and firewood for imported goods from France at the two city markets.
Quebec City's summer are warm, and at humid with average high temperatures of 2225C (7277F) and lows of 1113C (5156F), but sometimes heat index with warmer than actual temperature. Winter brings very cold, often windy and snowy weather, with average high temperature of -5 to -8C (1823F) and lows of -13 to -18C (08F). Because of wind chill, it sometimes feels much colder than actual temperature. Spring and fall are short, although mild. Late heat waves as well as "Indian summers" are a common occurrence.''

Porte St-Louis (in the picture) and Porte St-Jean are the main gates to the old town.

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Additional Photos by ALESSANDRO MACCHI (SWEETFREEDOM) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 1493 W: 0 N: 2889] (22476)
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