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The Citadel of Aleppo is considered to be one of the oldest and largest castles in the world. It was recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986. Its majestic stature forms the centre of the city; in fact the city wraps around it extending a spider-like infrastructural web of streets forming the city's organic urban form.

Usage of the Citadel hill dates back at least to the middle of the 3rd millennium BC, and has subsequently been occupied by many civilizations including the Greeks, Byzantines, Ayyubids and Mamluks.

The most prominent renovation is the entrance block that Sultan al-Zahir al-Ghazi rebuilt in 1213. Eight large arches structure the bridge that leads up to the Citadel over the moat. It is punctuated at the bottom by a defense gate with two towers and at the top of the ramped bridge by the Gate of Serpents and the Gate of the Two Lions. A complex defense mode was developed in the sequence of movement into the Citadel, as perpetrators would have to penetrate 3 iron doors and change direction 6 times through a series of 90 degree abrupt turns while being subjected to hot liquids being poured through the slit openings on the upper floors. These defense strategies made the Citadel of Aleppo one of the hardest forts to conquer in the region. This section of the citadel remains in excellent preservation to this day.

I hope you enjoy the photo and I will post more photos from the interesting and magnificent country of Syria over the coming weeks.

nikosrio, rigoletto has marked this note useful

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Additional Photos by Julian Kaesler (Julian_K) Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 145 W: 21 N: 198] (1055)
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