Agriculture (also called farming or husbandry) is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. Agriculture is also observed in certain species of ant and termite, but generally speaking refers to human activities.
The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures, and technologies. However, all farming generally relies on techniques to expand and maintain the lands suitable for raising domesticated species. For plants, this usually requires some form of irrigation, although there are methods of dryland farming; pastoral herding on rangeland is still the most common means of raising livestock. In the developed world, industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture has become the dominant system of modern farming, although there is growing support for sustainable agriculture (e.g. permaculture or organic agriculture).
Modern agronomy, plant breeding, pesticides and fertilizers, and technological improvements have sharply increased yields from cultivation, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological damage and negative human health effects. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry such as intensive pig farming have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal cruelty and the health effects of the antibiotics, growth hormones, and other chemicals commonly used in industrial meat production.
The major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels, and raw materials. In the 21st century, plants have been used to grow biofuels, biopharmaceuticals, bioplastics, and pharmaceuticals. Specific foods include cereals, vegetables, fruits, and meat. Fibers include cotton, wool, hemp, silk and flax. Raw materials include lumber and bamboo. Other useful materials are produced by plants, such as resins. Biofuels include methane from biomass, ethanol, and biodiesel. Cut flowers, nursery plants, tropical fish and birds for the pet trade are some of the ornamental products. Regarding food production, the World Bank targets agricultural food production and water management as an increasingly global issue that is fostering an important and growing debate.
Critiques | Translate
papagolf21 (101930) 2011-12-26 2:22
Bonjour, cher Petar,
L'agriculture est la base et la force de la prospérité du pays. L'industrie est l'aisance, le bonheur de la population.
J'aime également ces sillons, qui dessinent des formes géométriques étonnantes.
Bel effet de perspective sur un ciel de toute beauté.
pajaran (60617) 2011-12-26 4:40
Vrlo interesantan i poucan tekst ...
Lep pogled na izoranu njivu sa tragovima poljoprivredne masine i alata, dobra komozicija.
Dobar trenutak snimka sa oblacima koji osvajaju nebo i najavljuju promenu vremena, lepa fotografija.
Dobar rad, perspektiva, kompozicija i prikaz lepim bojama.
Sve najbolje u novoj nedelji koja je pocela.
danos (97815) 2011-12-27 0:26
nice the landscape view with the plough of the fields to spread until the end of the horizon reaching almost the village.I like the place of the horizon in the frame.
kordinator (20521) 2012-01-08 5:56
Zdravo Petre jo jednom
Lepa oranica sa predivnim nebom na horizontu.
Volim pravilne proporcije fotografije i fine boje.
Hristos se rodi...