Until the mid 19th century most boats were of all natural materials; primarily wood although reed, bark and animal skins were also used. Early boats include the bound-reed style of boat seen in Ancient Egypt, the birch bark canoe, the animal hide-covered kayak and coracle and the dugout canoe made from a single log. By the mid 19th century, many boats had been built with iron or steel frames but still planked in wood. In 1855 ferro-cement boat construction was patented by the French. They called it Ferciment. This is a system by which a steel or iron wire framework is built in the shape of a boat's hull and covered (troweled) over with cement. Reinforced with bulkheads and other internal structure, it is strong but heavy, easily repaired, and, if sealed properly, will not leak or corrode. These materials and methods were copied all over the world, and have faded in and out of popularity to the present. As the forests of Britain and Europe continued to be over-harvested to supply the keels of larger wooden boats, and the Bessemer process (patented in 1855) cheapened the cost of steel, steel ships and boats began to be more common. By the 1930s boats built of all steel from frames to plating were seen replacing wooden boats in many industrial uses, even the fishing fleets. Private recreational boats in steel are uncommon. In the mid 20th century aluminium gained popularity. Though much more expensive than steel, there are now aluminium alloys available that will not corrode in salt water, and an aluminium boat built to similar load carrying standards could be built lighter than steel.
Around the mid 1960s, boats made out of glass-reinforced plastic, more commonly known as fibreglass, became popular, especially for recreational boats. The United States Coast Guard refers to such boats as 'FRP' (for Fibre Reinforced Plastic) boats.
Fibreglass boats are extremely strong, and do not rust (iron oxide), corrode, or rot. They are, however susceptible to structural degradation from sunlight and extremes in temperature over their lifespan. Fibreglass provides structural strength, especially when long woven strands are laid, sometimes from bow to stern, and then soaked in epoxy or polyester resin to form the hull of the boat. Whether hand laid or built in a mold, FRP boats usually have an outer coating of gelcoat which is a thin solid colored layer of polyester resin that adds no structural strength, but does create a smooth surface which can be buffed to a high shine and also acts as a protective layer against sunlight.
Critiques | Translate
JFS (32459) 2012-04-15 23:46
The quality is not very good but the visual result is very positive. Simple but beautiful shot, the black frame is very appropiate.
Nicou (148320) 2012-04-16 0:51
Très beu détail coloré avec cde merveilleux reflets et déformationq uelles belle barque une touche de couleur sueprbe.
bravo et amitié
timecapturer (49288) 2012-04-16 2:40
a beautifully subtle light yet mesmerising colours in this wonderfully tranquil composition. Artistic and appealing. Well done!
Have a great week - Brian.
jhm (157788) 2012-04-16 3:02
Thank you very much for your interesting note.
I don't know certainly, or these picture is sharp, or are this my old eyes.
Nevertheless a nice colorfully image and nice reflections.
Very well done, TFS.
Have a nice day,
Budapestman (82620) 2012-04-16 3:47
an attracive photo with very nice composition, beautiful soft lights and colours, Tfs! Have a nice week! Kellemes hetet kívánok!
Gigidusud (21247) 2012-04-16 4:53
Beautiful colorful canoe with nice reflections on the water.I like it!
Have a nice day.
Sergiom (85877) 2012-04-16 5:26
En ce qui concerne ce cadrage et la qualité de l'image, je ne suis pas certain. Tout semble un peu flou et hors contexte.
abmdsudi (57112) 2012-04-16 7:57
The combination of those beautiful colours and the wonderful reflection make for a very simple picturesque image. A super composition but I do believe this may benefit from a little sharpening. Well done, TFS
Afsanehbagheri (3228) 2012-04-16 8:55
سلام دوست من
خیلی زیبا درمحیط جالب با نور خوب گرفته شده است تبریک با
آرزوی بهترین ها
vasilpro (41661) 2012-04-16 9:27
Beautiful composition with boats, lovely light and colors, very nice framework, TfS!
adramad (48352) 2012-04-17 8:13
An attractive picture with nice touches of color of the boats and the splendid reflections, original POV two-thirds of water in the image and the boats on the upper plane. Well done.
Have a nice day.
Cricri (123650) 2012-04-17 11:18
Très joli ces barques colorées avec les reflets, super bon cadrage, lumière et réalisation
ciakgiak (30433) 2012-04-17 13:58
immagine molto bella, colorata ed elegante, bello il taglio e la composizione, e come di consueto presentazione molto elegante.
Un caro saluto
ChrisJ (117195) 2012-04-18 4:28
Wonderful symmetrical reflections with vibrant colour & superb saturation, but I am missing a little bit of sharpness. The blue & yellow boat colors contrast well & there is marvellous repetition in the composition! Tfs!
Schnappilic (9692) 2012-04-18 9:03
De cum am vazut pozitia barcilor mi-am dat seama ca e o fotografie recenta. Si luni erau in aceeasi pozitie.
O seara buna!
Silvio1953 (150127) 2012-04-18 10:20
Ciao Daniel, great parade of lovely boats, fascinating reflections, splendid light and wonderful natural colors, very well done, my friend, ciao Silvio
- Copyright: Daniel Draghici (dkmurphys) (62725)
- Genre: Places
- Medium: Color
- Date Taken: 2012-04-14
- Categories: Daily Life, Nature, Transportation
- Camera: Nikon Coolpix
- Exposure: 1/125 seconds
- Photo Version: Original Version
- Theme(s): The Strand Park [view contributor(s)]
- Date Submitted: 2012-04-15 23:30