The station was built in 1855 - 1857, as the starting point of the Oberschlesische Eisenbahn (Upper Silesian Railway), as well as the Breslau - Posen - Glogau Railway. It replaced earlier complex of the Oberschlesischer Bahnhof (Upper Silesian Train Station, built 1841-1842). Its designer was Royal Prussian architect Wilhelm Grapow, and in the mid-19th century, it was located near the southern outskirts of the city, as the areas to the south had not been urbanized yet.
The original platform hall was located where now passenger hall is, and it was adjacent to the station complex. After construction was completed, in the mid-19th century, the station had only one platform, but the platform hall was some 200 meters long, and it was regarded as one of the biggest constructions of this kind in Europe. Along side entrances, there were luggage storages, telephone and telegraph. In the station complex, there was a restaurant and three waiting rooms (1st, 2nd, and 3rd class). Also, there was a special room and a separate hallway for VIPs.
In the late 19th century, when the government of the German Empire heavily invested in railroad construction, the station was extended. Also, prices of real estate around the station grew, as the city began to develop southwards. In 1899, construction of five new platforms began, with four of them covered by a large roof. The number of passenger rail tracks within the station grew to 13, and all platforms were elevated. The facade of the main hall was remodeled in the English style. During World War II Polish resistance from the group Zagra-Lin successfully attacked a Nazi Germany's troop transport on the station on 23 April 1943, a commemorative plate honouring their actions was placed after Nazi Germany was defeated and Breslau, together with Silesia, passed to Poland.When Wroclaw was given to Poland after World War II, Breslau Hauptbahnhof was renamed to Wroclaw Glˇwny.
On 8 January 1967, a popular Polish actor Zbigniew Cybulski died on platform 3. Cybulski was trying to jump into an already-departing train, but instead fell under its wheels. On the 30th anniversary of this event, Andrzej Wajda unveiled a plaque on the platform in memory of Cybulski.
In 2010-2012 the station was extensively refurbished