Cascata delle Marmore
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Cascata delle Marmore (Marmore's Falls) is a man-made waterfall created by the ancient Romans. Its total height is 165 m (541 feet), making it one of the tallest in Europe and the tallest man-made waterfall in the world. Of its 3 sections, the top one is the tallest, at 83 m (272 feet).
It is located 7.7 km from Terni, a provincial capital of the Italian region of Umbria.
Its source is a portion of the waters of the river Velino (the rest of the river flows into a hydroelectric power plant), after flowing through Piediluco lake near the community of Marmore. It pours into the valley below formed by the river Nera. Its flow is turned on and off according to a published schedule, to satisfy the needs of tourists and the power company alike. Tourists try to be there the moment the gates are opened to see the powerful rush of water.
Most of the time, the water in the canals above the falls is diverted to a hydroelectric power plant, so the flow in the falls themselves is reduced to the level of a creek. Piediluco Lake, above the falls, is used as a reservoir for the power plant. The Galleto power plant, built in 1929, is architecturally interesting. Its capacity is about 530 MW. To control the operation of the power plant, and to satisfy tourists, the fall is turned on according to a set schedule, achieving a spectacular effect at full flow. An alarm is sounded first, then the gates are opened, and in a few minutes the small creek is transformed into a full-sized river rushing into the void below.
Normally, the fall is turned on between noon and 1:00 PM and again between 4:00 and 5:00 PM every day, with additional times on holidays. An entrance fee is charged to visit the falls and the surrounding area.
A path along the falls allows the visitor to hike up to the top of the falls. Along the way, a tunnel leads to an observatory just next to the falls, where a visitor is guaranteed to get soaked. A safer observatory near the top affords a grandiose view of the falls and of the Nera valley below.
The Velino river flows through the highlands that surround the city of Rieti. In ancient times, it fed a wetland that was thought to bring illness (probably malaria). To remove that threat to the city of Rieti, in 271 BC, the Roman consul Manlius Curius Dentatus ordered the construction of a canal (the Curiano Trench) to divert the stagnant waters into the natural cliff at Marmore. From there, the water fell into the Nera river below. However, that solution created a different problem: when the Velino river was in flood stage, its water flowed through the Nera toward the city of Terni, threatening its population. The issue was so contentious between the two cities that the Roman Senate was forced to address it in 54 BC. Cicero represented Terni, and Aulus Pompeius represented Rieti. The Senate did nothing about the problem, and things remained the same for centuries.
Lack of maintenance in the canal resulted in a decrease in the flow, until eventually the wetland began to reappear. In 1422, Pope Gregory XII ordered the construction of a new canal to restore the original flow (the Gregorian Trench or Rieti Trench).
In 1545, Pope Paul III ordered that a new canal be built (the Pauline Trench). The plan was to expand the Curian Trench and to build a regulating valve to control the flow. Upon its completion some 50 years later (in 1598), Pope Clement VIII inaugurated the new work, and named it after himself: the Clementine Trench.
In the following two centuries, the presence of the canal was problematic for the countryside in the valley below, as the Nera often flooded it. In 1787, Pope Pius VI ordered architect Andrea Vici to modify the leaps below the falls, giving the falls its present look and finally resolving the majority of the problems.
In 1896, the newly formed steel mills in Terni began using the water flow in the Curiano Trench to power their operation. In the following years, engineers began using the water flow to generate electricity.
Critiques | Translate
bayno (18342) 2011-06-28 10:27
Bella inquadratura, belle tutte le tonalità di verdi spezzate dalla bianca cascata, ottimo il punto di scatto.
mauro61 (52623) 2011-06-28 10:29
questo taglio lo preferisco al precedente.
Notevole resa della grande massa d'acqua che in più salti scende giù.
Buona gestione di una difficile luce,
dip (23632) 2011-06-28 10:41
what a wonderful scenery!
very good point of view,excellent clarity and light managment very well composed,
alabate (1197) 2011-06-28 10:43
Très beau paysage à trois couleurs, magnifiquement capturé.
Les cascades semblent faite de lait, tellement l'eau est blanche, cela donne un effet superbe.
La végétation luxuriante est d'un beau vert vif et contrasté. Vraiment une magnifique photo.
Une très belle journée.
bebbetto (12) 2011-06-28 10:54
Bella inquadratura e splendida visione di una cascata che (mi vergogno a dirlo) non conosco.
bema (26341) 2011-06-28 11:05
waterfalls ae always a re vey fine motive to capture, and you have managed to pick up this splendid picture in real good way!
thanks for sharing, see you around, Bernd
Bluejeans (64249) 2011-06-28 11:20
Ola Silvio ,
Outro belo plano desta cascata delle Marmore , bonito o contraste da agua com o verde , boa luz , parabéns!!
Um abraço Gonçalo
grigand (19567) 2011-06-28 11:48
Grandiosa ! stupenda immagine di queste incredibili cascate .. ricordo anni fà di aver aspettato quasi un'ora per vedere lo spettacolo
RhodieIke (11742) 2011-06-28 11:49
Hi Silvio, Super photo of these fantastic falls, you have captured well, great colour's and presentation, Cheers Iain.
francio64 (38276) 2011-06-28 12:06
buon taglio verticale che mostra i vari salti di queste famose cascate italiene.
Buona la gestione della luce.
jemaflor (85456) 2011-06-28 12:33
Great falls, well taken from this pov, perfect light and colors, tfs.
Budapestman (82620) 2011-06-28 13:59
a fabulous view with spectacular vertical composition, the POV is superb, great details and lights, fantastic atmosphere, Tfs! Have a nice evening! Kellemes estét kívánok!
Fis2 (86267) 2011-06-28 14:15
I like vertical frame and composition.
Excellent water effect.
lousat (77802) 2011-06-28 14:17
Bellissima cartolina con la perfetta posizione della luce per far risaltare il bianco della spuma e la sua nebbiolina,grandi dettagli e ben saturata...buonanotte! Luciano
Guenther (10915) 2011-06-28 14:19
che stupenda vista... pensavo fosse qualche posto in nella giungla brasiliana... ottima composizione!
lakshmip1949 (19081) 2011-06-28 14:46
Lovely cascades captured beautifully. I like the greenery around the waterfalls. The sharpness and clarity are superb.
atus (15838) 2011-06-28 15:55
ottima inquadratura per questa bellissima cascata. Pdv eccellente e perfetta gestione della luce.
Complimenti e buona serata.
Charo (51210) 2011-06-28 16:03
Ancora un'altra foto di questa cascata fantastica, dove la forza e la quantità d'acqua, sollevando nuvole di vapore.
Il posto è sicuramente bellissimo.
Grande prospettiva con grande forza e la definizione ottimale.
emka (79831) 2011-06-28 16:19
Where is this wonderful waterfall? It is amazing. great quality of the picture, sharpness and colours are perfect.
emilbo (22616) 2011-06-28 16:38
Magnifique prise de vue et merveilleuses chutes, deux pour le même prix. Excellente exposition qui donnent un effet réel. La végétation est superbe et beau contraste de couleurs.
Félicitations!... et toutes mes amitiés,
Sonata11 (33283) 2011-06-28 18:22
what a beautiful view of beautiful waterfall. Wonderful composition and framework as well. Perfectly well done. My congrats. This is a brilliant shot!!!. I love it.
All the best,
jjcordier (76852) 2011-06-28 22:59
Superbe photo de ce magnifique endroit que tu as parfaitement mis en image.
HimalAnda (9816) 2011-06-28 23:34
This is a very nice place and an impressive waterfall.
Your composition is excellent, we can feel the power of the waterfall on this picture.
krzychu30 (15498) 2011-06-28 23:44
first of all,thank you for sharing with us this beautiful picture.I had no idea about this waterfall,and I thought I read a lot books about Italy.
It´s really wonderful.You captured it perfectly with a good POV and chosing a vertical frame was a good option here.I enjoy also these splendid,vivid colors,which make the whole composition so lively.
Have a nice day
danos (87465) 2011-06-29 0:32
fascinating the view of the waterfalls of Marmore,as they flow through the wooden cliffs of the Mt. Impressive the sight of the altitude as the optical effect that created. Informative your note as well.
Have a good day,Danos
mkamionka (30694) 2011-06-29 1:54
amazing view. I have probably said it already but I did not really expect to see such a place in Europe. Beautiful natural colors. The water seems so powerful. I like also a small touch of the cloud above the waterfall,
very well done,
snunney (84847) 2011-06-29 3:10
They look as if they have been devised by nature these man-made waterfalls with an ancient history. A splendid well framed composition with the falls placed just off-centre. I like the little cloud seemingly floating over the uppermost falls. Lovely ambient light and excellent natural colours; good sharpness throughout. Most interesting note.
dta (67198) 2011-06-29 4:05
Ciao Silvio ,
A superb capture of these outstanding falls . The framing is excellent .
A gorgeous wild scenery .
baddori (19963) 2011-06-29 6:04
Una nota da "funzionario" agli annales.
Perfetta descrivere il bello è dire "bello".
Sergiom (61092) 2011-06-29 6:10
C'est un bien bel endroit que tu nous présente. Cette série de chutes et de cascades est de toute beauté et le cadrage vertical donne beaucoup de profondeur à l'ensemble.
siamesa (27743) 2011-06-29 7:28
Bom dia Silvio
Uma cascata espetacular com uma beleza incrível. Linda foto,amigo. Obrigada por partllhar.
peppe59 (14551) 2011-06-29 7:32
bellissime le cascate forse più famose d'Italia, una luce perfetta ne fà apprezzare ancora di più i colori e le sfumature, bravissimo ottimo scatto.
cornejo (32148) 2011-06-29 9:42
Ciao Silvio. A composition very good of this image of the waterfall so beautiful. A picture very beautiful, a good work technically very well, congratulation. Have a good afternoon, thanks for sharing.
npecanhuk (66302) 2011-06-29 17:02
Truly attractive picture!
Chosen pov, composition, exposure and colors are highlights and really pleased me!
TFS - congrats,
paninho (2931) 2011-06-30 8:39
Je préfère celle-là! Le cadrage vertical est mieux adapté que la précédente. L'endroit est vraiment spectaculaire! Et la lumière toujours aussi belle!
C'est ou plus exactement?
Nice job my friend!
ikeharel (58159) 2011-06-30 9:13
Buona sera Silvio,
Impressive and magnificent photo of the waterfall.
Perfect lighting and colors and i almost imagine the water roars...
ingvar (2088) 2011-06-30 14:41
Ciao caro Silvio!
Che spettacolo, da piccolo volevo trovare uno simile, sapendo dai libri che c’è sempre un tesoro nella caverna sotto l’acqua… I sogni sono spariti, ma questo tipo di immagine mi affascinano sempre.
Buona serata, caro!
sacavem (18610) 2011-07-01 8:17
It adds grounding to the movement of the water which is captured beautifully with the slow shutter speed. The colours are deep and beautiful. Well done.
I'll be away for 2 weeks, starting July 02, deserved vacation :)
macjake (57074) 2011-07-01 10:19
beautiful double waterfall! :)
I don't think we often see the double very often!
the touch of white cloud in the sky is a great compliment to the white water.
splendid photo for your collection.
Longroute (19396) 2011-07-07 23:37
Questa non l'ho mai vista né in foto né nella realtà. Non pensavo fossero così grandi, sembra la giungla brasiliana....
qui era di rigore il formato verticale per accentuare l'imponenza di questa cascata. Inquadrata molto bene con la nuvoletta che sembra una continuazione in alto della cascata.
Bella luce intensa e colori vivi.
SWEETFREEDOM (22808) 2011-07-10 7:50
grandioso spettacolo, ottimi colori e contrasto