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Great Synagogue of Rome

From Wikipedia:

The Great Synagogue of Rome (Italian: Tempio Maggiore di Roma) is the largest synagogue in Rome and one of the greatest in Europe.

History
The Jewish community of Rome goes back to the 2nd century B.C when the Roman Empire had an alliance of sorts with Judea under the leadership of Judah Maccabeus. At that time, many Jews came to Rome from Judea. Their numbers increased during the following centuries due to the settlement that came with Mediterranean trade. Then large numbers of Jews were brought to Rome as slaves following the Jewish–Roman wars in Judea from 63 to 135 CE
The present Synagogue was constructed shortly after the unification of Italy in 1870, when the Kingdom of Italy captured Rome and the Papal States ceased to exist. The Roman Ghetto was demolished and the Jews were granted citizenship. The building which had previously housed the ghetto synagogue (a complicated structure housing five scolas in a single building) was demolished, and the Jewish community began making plans for a new and impressive building.
Commemorative plates have been affixed to honour the local Jewish victims of Nazi Germany and of a Palestine Liberation Organization attack in 1982.
The synagogue celebrated its centenary in 2004. In addition to serving as a house of worship, it is also serves a cultural and organizational centre for la Comunità Ebraica di Roma (the Jewish community of Rome). It houses the offices of the Chief Rabbi of Rome, as well as the Jewish Museum of Rome.

Design
Designed by Vincenzo Costa and Osvaldo Armanni, the synagogue was built from 1901 to 1904 on the banks of the Tiber, overlooking the former ghetto. The eclectic style of the building makes it stand out, even in a city known for notable buildings and structures. This attention-grabbing design was a deliberate choice made by the community at the time who wanted the building to be a visible celebration of their freedom and to be seen from many vantage points in the city. The aluminium dome is the only squared dome in the city and makes the building easily identifiable even from a distance.

Temple of Apollo Sosianus

The Temple of Apollo Sosianus (previously known as the Apollinar and the temple of Apollo Medicus) is a Roman temple dedicated to Apollo in the Campus Martius, next to the Theatre of Marcellus and the Porticus Octaviae, in Rome, Italy. Its present name derives from that of its final rebuilder, Gaius Sosius.
The Apollinar and its successors can closely be linked to the site next to the theatre due to Ascanius's reference] to it being "outside the porta Carmentalis between the Forum Holitorium and the Circus Flaminius", Livy's placing it in the prata Flaminia (Flaminian meadows, as this area was then called and other references placing it near to the forum, the Capitol and the theatre of Marcellus respectively. All these indicate the presently-accepted site for this temple, just north of the theatre and east of the porticus Octaviae, on the street leading through the porta Carmentalis to the campus Martius, a little south of the present Piazza Campitelli.

History
The three columns of the temple which survive to full-height today belong to the Augustan rebuild, but the cult of Apollo had existed in this area since at least to the mid-5th century BC when an Apollinar (a sacred grove or altar) was recorded on this site. Since Apollo was a foreign cult, it thus legally had to be placed outside the pomerium, making it a regular spot for extra-pomerial senate meetings (This was also Apollo's only temple in Rome until Augustus dedicated another on the Palatine Hill.)
The first temple building dates to 431 BC, when the consul Gnaeus Iulius Mento inaugurated one dedicated to Apollo Medicus (the doctor), in fulfilment of a vow to him during a plague of 433 BC. This building was restored in 353 BC, and perhaps in 179 BC, when the censor Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and his colleague let the contract for building a porticus from the temple to the Tiber, behind the temple of Spes. The censor's projects also included a nearby theatre. The shedding of tears for three days by a cult-statue of Apollo, cited among the prodigies at the death of the Younger Scipio, can only have occurred at this temple, there being no others to Apollo.
A neighbouring temple dedicated to Apollo's sister Diana probably dates to the late Republic, following the destruction of the Apollo temple's precinct in work on the theatre of Marcellus.

Photo Information
  • Copyright: Romano Lattanzi (Romano46) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 1089 W: 0 N: 2642] (16578)
  • Genre: Places
  • Medium: Color
  • Date Taken: 2012-12-26
  • Categories: Architecture
  • Exposure: f/4, 1/100 seconds
  • More Photo Info: view
  • Photo Version: Original Version
  • Date Submitted: 2014-02-17 10:01
Viewed: 712
Points: 74
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