The Roman Forum (Latin: Forum Romanum, Italian: Foro Romano) is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. Citizens of the ancient city referred to this space, originally a marketplace, as the Forum Magnum, or simply the Forum.
It was for centuries the center of Roman public life: the site of triumphal processions and elections; the venue for public speeches, criminal trials, and gladiatorial matches; and the nucleus of commercial affairs. Here statues and monuments commemorated the city's great men. The teeming heart of ancient Rome, it has been called the most celebrated meeting place in the world, and in all history. Located in the small valley between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, the Forum today is a sprawling ruin of architectural fragments and intermittent archeological excavations attracting numerous sightseers.
Many of the oldest and most important structures of the ancient city were located on or near the Forum. The Roman kingdom's earliest shrines and temples were located on the southeastern edge. These included the ancient former royal residence, the Regia (8th century BC), and the Temple of Vesta (7th century BC), as well as the surrounding complex of the Vestal Virgins, all of which were rebuilt after the rise of imperial Rome.
Other archaic shrines to the northwest, such as the Umbilicus Urbis and the Vulcanal (Shrine of Vulcan), developed into the Republic's formal Comitium (assembly area). This is where the Senate—as well as Republican government itself—began. The Senate House, government offices, tribunals, temples, memorials and statues gradually cluttered the area.
Over time the archaic Comitium was replaced by the larger adjacent Forum and the focus of judicial activity moved to the new Basilica Aemilia (179 BC). Some 130 years later, Julius Caesar built the Basilica Julia, along with the new Curia Julia, refocusing both the judicial offices and the Senate itself. This new Forum, in what proved to be its final form, then served as a revitalized city square where the people of Rome could gather for commercial, political, judicial and religious pursuits in ever greater numbers.
Eventually much economic and judicial business would transfer away from the Forum Romanum to the larger and more extravagant structures (Trajan's Forum and the Basilica Ulpia) to the north. The reign of Constantine the Great, during which the Empire was divided into its Eastern and Western halves, saw the construction of the last major expansion of the Forum complex—the Basilica of Maxentius (312 AD). This returned the political center to the Forum until the fall of the Western Roman Empire almost two centuries later.
Unlike the later imperial fora in Rome—which were self-consciously modeled on the ancient Greek plateia (πλατεῖα) public plaza or town square—the Roman Forum developed gradually, organically and piecemeal over many centuries. This is so despite the tidying up of men like Sulla, Caesar and Augustus who attempted, with some success, to impose a degree of order there. By the Imperial period the large public buildings that crowded around the central square had reduced the open area to a rectangle of about 130 by 50 meters
Its long dimension was oriented northwest to southeast and extended from the foot of the Capitoline Hill to that of the Velian Hill. The Forum's basilicas during the Imperial period—the Basilica Aemilia on the north and the Basilica Julia on the south—defined its long sides and its final form. The Forum proper included this square, the buildings facing it and, sometimes, an additional area (the Forum Adjectum) extending southeast as far as the Arch of Titus.
Originally the site of the Forum had been marshy ground, which was drained by the Tarquins with the Cloaca Maxima Because of its location, sediments from both the flooding of the Tiber River and the erosion of the surrounding hills have been raising the level of the Forum floor for centuries. Excavated sequences of remains of paving show that sediment eroded from the surrounding hills was already raising the level in early Republican times
As the ground around buildings began to rise, residents simply paved over the debris that was too much to remove. Its final travertine paving, still visible, dates from the reign of Augustus. Excavations in the 19th century revealed one layer on top of another. The deepest level excavated was 3.60 meters above sea level. Archaeological finds show human activity at that level with the discovery of carbonised woodAn important function of the Forum, during both Republican and Imperial times, was to serve as the culminating venue for the celebratory military processions known as Triumphs. Victorious generals entered the city by the western Triumphal Gate (Porta Triumphalis) and circumnavigated the Palatine Hill (counterclockwise) before proceeding from the Velian Hill down the Via Sacra and into the Forum
From here they would mount the Capitoline Rise (Clivus Capitolinus) up to the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the summit of the Capitol. Lavish public banquets ensued back down on the Forum. (In addition to the Via Sacra, the Forum was accessed by a number of storied roads and streets, including the Vicus Jugarius, Vicus Tuscus, Argiletum, and Via Nova.)
Critiques | Translate
dkmurphys (46140) 2013-12-09 22:20
Fine iconic image from the forum. I remember it well, truly impressive place.
Have a good day.
Mics (643) 2013-12-09 22:26
Beautiful photo:-) Thanks for sharing a glimpse of the glorious Roman civilization. It reminds me again of my humanities subject way back...TFS!
emka (73115) 2013-12-09 23:17
beautiful view of the Roman Forum. Nice wide panorama showing the tower of campidoglio and part of Vittoriano. Impressive shot.
Warm regrads MAlgo
aleXundar (1256) 2013-12-09 23:49
Spectacular view of the great architectural structures. I have never seen them in such a vast panorama other than in some films (but they were sets).
I think it not easy to decide, which part of the area should be framed for the best view. Your composition is great as usual with perfect colors and clarity.
Thanks for sharing.
krzychu30 (15332) 2013-12-10 2:36
there´s nothing more beautiful than spring in "Eternal City".Your composition shows it perfectly!
Lush,vivid greenery,beautiful weather and ancient remainings-what more do we need?
Excellent composition from Forum Romanum with superb colors,strong contrast and really well considered frame.
Have a nice day
jhm (135058) 2013-12-10 3:13
Thank you very much for your interesting notes.
I have today again something learned.
You chose a very well angle this care for depth and perspective.
Nice old buildings in background.
A nice composition, lovely colours, sharpness makes everything nice.
Very well done, TFS.
Noel_Byrne (20694) 2013-12-10 4:12
Molti anni fa, ho camminato lungo questa strada, così come ottimo per vederlo nella tua galleria :) Purtroppo, allora la fotografia non era una passione, quindi Non ho alcun ricordo di esso foto, ma non posso fregare di meno, perché la presentazione qui è semplicemente perfetto. Il sentiero porta in scena così bene creare la profondità, mentre l'architettura tutt'intorno sembra superbo, in particolare i resti del palazzo sulla destra. Tutto questo combinato con quel forte cielo blu ..... perfetto!
Grazie come sempre
timecapturer (45107) 2013-12-10 4:46
never tire of images of this amazing place. Everything is in this shot with glimpses of the historical gems that just seem to be on every corner of this beautiful City. Inviting composition and immaculate detailing make this so appealing.
snunney (79491) 2013-12-10 5:17
The well chosen point of view sets the ancient ruins in the context of their modern surroundings. The pathway draws the viewer into the scene and directs their attention toward the focal point offered by the bell tower. The image is pleasantly lit and has very good colours and sharpness.
Sergiom (54377) 2013-12-10 5:28
Le regard suit naturellement le petit sentier dans l'image et s'attarde à toutes ces beautés sur son chemin , toutes plus belles les unes que les autres vers cette construction en arrière plan qui se dresse dans un ciel parfait.
Silvio1953 (115825) 2013-12-10 6:24
Ciao Romano, gran bella vista del foro col campidoglio a far da sfondo, ottima composizione, splendida nitidezza, bravo, ciao Silvio
ourania (26280) 2013-12-10 10:40
la tua serie dal Foro Romano nella splendida luce ed i colori della primavera, mi piace moltissimo. Anche in questa foto hai catturato benissimo i dettagli sia nel primo piano che in distanza, studiare l' immagine e' accattivante. Ci sono sempre nuovi dettagli da scoprire, la tua composizione sembra semplice ma infatti la foto e' ricchissima. C' e' gradevole equilibrio, ampio interesse e la prospettiva e' irresistibile. Complimenti e grazie!
Tanti saluti e buona serata,
cornejo (27937) 2013-12-11 10:28
Romano Ciao, ottima vista del forum con ottima prospettiva e profondità, molto ben catturata con una grande POV con molto buona e bella foto. Un'immagine interessante di un posto interessante, buona nitidezza, profondità e qualità. Nizza buon lavoro perfettamente fatto, complimenti amico mio. Grazie per la condivisione di questo interessante lavoro.
Buona notte e felice resto della settimana.
Cordiali saluti dal sud della Spagna.
nikkitta (13220) 2013-12-11 11:09
A well composed capture of the Forum with the path given deepness and leading the view to the back, to the Capitoline Hill and the Victorio Monument at the right
Exelent color contrast with the vegetation and the very blue sky
Thanks for the illustrated lesson, note and photo of Ancien History
Ciao et buona serata
ChrisJ (94770) 2013-12-12 9:21
I have a similar shot from a higher pov I must load one day. Good density levels that have given perfect exposure in both the highlights and shadows. Excellent sharpness and nice warm cold color contrasts. Well composed with the fg path adding perspective. Have a great weekend!
yquem46 (38380) 2013-12-12 9:28
I missed this good picture
Luminous scenery and natural colors
Lucky you to have these splendid monuments just at your door
Cricri (101189) 2013-12-12 11:04
Un site ancien ou l'architecture ne laisse pas indifférentes, bien blotti entre la végétation, les bâtiments plus récents en arrière plan, belle lumière, très belle composition
ikeharel (52181) 2013-12-13 4:09
wOn 6/1980 when I visited the Foro-Romano, I remember wondering about how the place looked back intime in the Empire era.
Fabulous old town built, amazing architecture's techniques applied, with tools that not as modern and efficient as today's.
Fine takenDOF along the old street, in good sharpness as always.
The mighty pillars on right are most impressive object.
Well done, Salute,
Royaldevon (26449) 2013-12-13 7:54
Ciao Caro Romano,
Rome is so full of history, so full of wonderful buildings that relate its history!
Your viewpoint, well chosen, directs us straight to the forum, with wonderful examples of ancient Roman architecture, all around, for us to savour and enjoy.
Have a great w/e,
claudeD (30421) 2013-12-13 11:46
wonderful picture from Rome with an excellent composition and fine clarity. I ikw the view very much.Very good contribution to TE.
With regards from Luxembourg
npecanhuk (60816) 2013-12-21 4:30
Ciao! You took a very interesting, attractive and inviting picture of this ever wonderful urban &historical environment ! Sharpness, exposure, colors, chosen pov and composition are all excellent! Cheers, Neyvan