Arch of Titus
The Arch of Titus is a 1st-century honorific arch located on the Via Sacra, Rome, just to the south-east of the Roman Forum. It was constructed in c. 82 AD by the Roman Emperor Domitian shortly after the death of his older brother Titus to commemorate Titus' victories, including the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 AD.
The Arch of Titus has provided the general model for many of the triumphal arches erected since the 16th century—perhaps most famously it is the inspiration for the 1806 Arc de Triomphe in Paris, France, completed in 1836.
The arch is situated on a prominent rise, the Velian Hill, which is a low saddle between the Palatine and Esquiline Hills, just south-east of the Roman Forum. The arch itself is 13.50 metres wide, 15.40 high, and 4.75 deep while the inner archway is 8.30 metres high and 5.36 wide. It is constructed using pentelic marble, arranged in five bays to an ABA rhythm; the side bays are perpendicular to the central axial arch with a single barrel vault. The corners are articulated with a huge order of engaged columns that stand on a high ashlar basement. The capitals are Corinthian, but with prominent volutes of the Ionic order projecting laterally above the acanthus foliage—the earliest example of the composite order, combining both designs. Above the main cornice rises a high, weighty 4.40m high attic on which is a central tablet bearing the dedicatory inscription. The entablatures break forward over the columns and the wide central arch, and the profile of the column shafts transforms to square. The minor frieze on the entablature depicts a line of both military and civil officials, along with sacrificial animals. Flanking the central arch, the side bays now each contain a shallow niche-like blind aedicular window, a discreet early 19th century restoration. There are both fluted and unfluted columns, the latter being a result of 19th century restoration. The spandrels on the upper left and right of the arch contain personifications of victory as winged women. Between the spandrels is the keystone, on which there stands a female on the East side and a male on the West side.
The soffit of the axial archway is deeply coffered with a relief of the apotheosis of Titus at the center. The sculptural program also includes two panel reliefs lining the passageway within the arch. Both commemorate the joint triumph celebrated by Titus and his father Vespasian in the summer of 71.
The south panel depicts the spoils taken from the Temple in Jerusalem. The Golden Candelabra or Menorah is the main focus and is carved in deep relief. Other sacred objects being carried in the triumphal procession are the Gold Trumpets and the Table of Shew bread. These spoils were originally gilded with gold, with the background in blue.
The north panel depicts Titus as triumphator attended by various genii and lictors, who carry fasces. A helmeted Amazonian, Valour, leads the quadriga or four horsed chariot, which carries Titus. Winged Victory crowns him with a laurel wreath. The juxtaposition is significant in that it is one of the first examples of divinities and humans being present in one scene together. This contrasts with the panels of the Ara Pacis, where humans and divinities are separated. The sculpture of the outer faces of the two great piers was lost when the Arch of Titus was incorporated in medieval defensive walls. The attic of the arch was originally crowned by more statuary, perhaps of a gilded chariot. The main inscription used to be ornamented by letters made of perhaps silver, gold or some other metal.
Church Santa Francesca Romana
Santa Francesca Romana, previously known as Santa Maria Nova, is a church in Rome, Italy, situated next to the Roman Forum in the rione Campitelli.
The church was built in the second half of the 10th century, incorporating an eighth-century oratory that Pope Paul I excavated in the wing of the portico of the Temple of Venus and Roma; it was named Santa Maria Nova ("new St. Mary"), to distinguish it from the other Roman Forum church devoted to St. Mary, Santa Maria Antiqua ("ancient St. Mary"), which had become dilapidated in the 10th century it was rebuilt by Pope Honorius II in the 13th century, when the campanile was built and the apse was decorated with mosaics of a Maestà, the Madonna enthroned accompanied by saints. The interior has been altered since. Since 1352 the church has been in the care of the Olivetans. In the 16th century the church was rededicated to Frances of Rome (canonized in 1608), whose relics are in the crypt. Its travertine porch and façade is by Carlo Lambardi, and was completed in 1615.
The interior, in a single nave with side chapels, was rebuilt by Lambardi in the years preceding Francesca Buzzi's canonization, beginning in 1595. In the middle of the nave is the rectangular schola cantorum of the old church, covered in Cosmatesque mosaics. Another prominent feature is the confessional designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1638-49), in polychrome marbles with four columns veneered in jasper.
The church houses the precious Madonna Glycophilousa ("our Lady of the tenderness"), an early 5th century Hodegetria icon brought from Santa Maria Antiqua. The twelfth-century Madonna and Child that had been painted over it was meticulously detached in 1950 from the panel and is now kept in the sacristy.
The ancient oratory on which the current church is built was located by Pope Paul I on the place in which Simon Magus died. According to this legend, Simon Magus wanted to prove his powers as stronger than those of the apostles, and started levitating in front of Sts. Peter and Paul. The two apostles fell on their knees preaching, and Simon fell, dying. The basalt stones where the apostles were kept the imprints of their knees, and are embedded in the wall of the south transept.
The tomb of Pope Gregory XI, who returned the papacy to Rome from Avignon, reconstructed to a design by Per Paulo Olivieri (signed and dated 1584) is in the south transept.
The titulus of the church remains Sancta Mariae Novae; the current Cardinal Priest of the Titulus S. Mariae Novae is Angelo Sodano.
Saint Francesca Romana being the patron of car drivers, automobiles were lined up on the day of her feast (9 March) as far as the Colosseum, to partake of the blessing.
The facade of the Church of Holy Cross College, in Clonliffe in Dublin, Ireland, is a replica of Santa Francesca Romana. It was designed by the Gothic Architect J.J. McCarthy and is the only exception to his list of Gothic works.
Critiques | Translate
Royaldevon (21405) 2013-10-06 1:58
What stands out, immediately, is your sense of composition. You have used a f/g triangle to create that strength and sense of depth. The wall makes a diagonal lead to the arch, which then opens up a whole vista of interesting, Roman buildings.
The figures on the busy walkway give a sense of scale and human interest.
I think the f/g may need a little more brightness.
Have a lovely day,
snunney (72650) 2013-10-06 2:19
A good strong composition with lots interesting elements that come together to form a pleasing harmonious whole. The people bring the scene to life and create a good sense of scale. Like Bev, I think the image is slightly lacking in brightness though that is not a major issue for me.
krzychu30 (12619) 2013-10-06 2:52
just love these dramatic,grey sky which helps you to create so magnificent,unique mood over the Forum Romanum.Also the way you´ve coped with tonal range is remarkable-excellent light and details despite cloudy sky.And finally your POV-I really like this perspective(I´ve seen pictures from Forum many,many times,but to be honest this seems to me very refreshing and original).
Thank You for sharing and have a nice sunday
timecapturer (37028) 2013-10-06 2:58
classic Roma shot this. Subtle yet entrancing light to add to the sense of history and architectural beauty. Gloriously detailed and executed superbly. Irresistible!
Enjoy your Sunday - Brian.
Sergiom (45348) 2013-10-06 4:53
Un très beau plan d'ensemble de ces superbes ruines qui font la renommée et la beauté de Rome. J'aime que le ciel soit ainsi torturée, cela donne du caractère à l'ensemble.
Noel_Byrne (13284) 2013-10-06 5:00
C'è così tanto del mondo antico a guardare in questo scatto, e tutto traino con tale profondità perfetto come ci guardiamo dentro e attraverso il colpo di edifici della distanza ulteriore. Il cielo ha creato una bellissima tela troppo, e mi piace il tocco della bandiera italiana vola con orgoglio nella scena troppo. Scena drammatica, perfettamente presa.
Hanno un grande Domenica
PS Volevo dire grazie ancora per le vostre numerose visite a mia galleria troppo, mi piace leggere le vostre note, e vi ringrazio per i vostri pensieri.
holmertz (31248) 2013-10-06 7:17
I like the pleasantly mild colours created by the expressive clouds and the lack of direct sunshine. The green, yellow, grey and brown all blend beautifully. The composition is very carefully made with a good balance between the arch and the church tower and a fine diagonal leading up to the arch.
danos (78056) 2013-10-06 8:17
fascinating the view as the presentation of the place with the entrance to the Roman Forum to be placed perfect in the image.I like the view of the whole area with the details to are enhanced from the excellent light and colour management.Well done.
Have a good week,Danos
carlo62 (19357) 2013-10-06 14:06
la luce non è certo delle migliori, ma Roma è bella sotto ogni luce, quando piove o quando nevica.
Mi piace la composizione, è ben equilibrata e piacevole e la torre interrompe l'andamento orizzontale.
Periko (1377) 2013-10-06 21:20
Nice scenery under such an impressive sky.
Soft light and natural colors.
macjake (45588) 2013-10-06 22:32
more and more photos from Rome, and I'm loving everyone of them.
you had a wonderful coverage of the skyline at this exact time and it makes a strong impact on the image.
looking more closely at the scene, the photo has excellent sharpness and depth, the buildings way in the bg are just as sharp as the fg buildings.
well shot my friend
subhendu_bagchi (21006) 2013-10-07 1:31
hi, a nice shot here. Like the composition with those buildings, specially the church at middle. Excellent depth and nice sharpness. Colours are natural. An interesting composition. Tfs.
cornejo (22464) 2013-10-07 9:40
Ciao Romano, molto buona immagine di questo interessante luogo pieno di storia, molto ben composta e catturato in questa immagine interessante, con una buona nitidezza, luce e colore. Ottimo ed interessante lavoro ben fatto, complimenti amico mio. Grazie per aver condiviso questo bel lavoro.
Buon pomeriggio e felice settimana.
I migliori auguri dal sud della Spagna.
Silvio1953 (105427) 2013-10-07 10:28
Ciao Romano, POV insolito e azzeccato, cielo delizioso, buona gestione di una luce non facile, bravo, ciao Silvio
tatadalou (3975) 2013-10-07 16:29
Il cielo sia nuvoloso sia luminosos diffusa una bella luce su tutta l'immagine. Bella panoramica.
SWEETFREEDOM (19902) 2013-10-07 23:41
un p.o.v. con diversi edifici interessanti. buona nitidezza e colori naturali