The Roman Forum (Latin: Forum Romanum, Italian: Foro Romano) is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. Citizens of the ancient city referred to this space, originally a marketplace, as the Forum Magnum, or simply the Forum.
It was for centuries the center of Roman public life: the site of triumphal processions and elections; the venue for public speeches, criminal trials, and gladiatorial matches; and the nucleus of commercial affairs. Here statues and monuments commemorated the city's great men. The teeming heart of ancient Rome, it has been called the most celebrated meeting place in the world, and in all history. Located in the small valley between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, the Forum today is a sprawling ruin of architectural fragments and intermittent archeological excavations attracting numerous sightseers.
Many of the oldest and most important structures of the ancient city were located on or near the Forum. The Roman kingdom's earliest shrines and temples were located on the southeastern edge. These included the ancient former royal residence, the Regia (8th century BC), and the Temple of Vesta (7th century BC), as well as the surrounding complex of the Vestal Virgins, all of which were rebuilt after the rise of imperial Rome.
Other archaic shrines to the northwest, such as the Umbilicus Urbis and the Vulcanal (Shrine of Vulcan), developed into the Republic's formal Comitium (assembly area). This is where the Senate—as well as Republican government itself—began. The Senate House, government offices, tribunals, temples, memorials and statues gradually cluttered the area.
Over time the archaic Comitium was replaced by the larger adjacent Forum and the focus of judicial activity moved to the new Basilica Aemilia (179 BC). Some 130 years later, Julius Caesar built the Basilica Julia, along with the new Curia Julia, refocusing both the judicial offices and the Senate itself. This new Forum, in what proved to be its final form, then served as a revitalized city square where the people of Rome could gather for commercial, political, judicial and religious pursuits in ever greater numbers.
Eventually much economic and judicial business would transfer away from the Forum Romanum to the larger and more extravagant structures (Trajan's Forum and the Basilica Ulpia) to the north. The reign of Constantine the Great, during which the Empire was divided into its Eastern and Western halves, saw the construction of the last major expansion of the Forum complex—the Basilica of Maxentius (312 AD). This returned the political center to the Forum until the fall of the Western Roman Empire almost two centuries later.
Unlike the later imperial fora in Rome—which were self-consciously modeled on the ancient Greek plateia (πλατεῖα) public plaza or town square—the Roman Forum developed gradually, organically and piecemeal over many centuries. This is so despite the tidying up of men like Sulla, Caesar and Augustus who attempted, with some success, to impose a degree of order there. By the Imperial period the large public buildings that crowded around the central square had reduced the open area to a rectangle of about 130 by 50 meters
Its long dimension was oriented northwest to southeast and extended from the foot of the Capitoline Hill to that of the Velian Hill. The Forum's basilicas during the Imperial period—the Basilica Aemilia on the north and the Basilica Julia on the south—defined its long sides and its final form. The Forum proper included this square, the buildings facing it and, sometimes, an additional area (the Forum Adjectum) extending southeast as far as the Arch of Titus.
Originally the site of the Forum had been marshy ground, which was drained by the Tarquins with the Cloaca Maxima Because of its location, sediments from both the flooding of the Tiber River and the erosion of the surrounding hills have been raising the level of the Forum floor for centuries. Excavated sequences of remains of paving show that sediment eroded from the surrounding hills was already raising the level in early Republican times
As the ground around buildings began to rise, residents simply paved over the debris that was too much to remove. Its final travertine paving, still visible, dates from the reign of Augustus. Excavations in the 19th century revealed one layer on top of another. The deepest level excavated was 3.60 meters above sea level. Archaeological finds show human activity at that level with the discovery of carbonised woodAn important function of the Forum, during both Republican and Imperial times, was to serve as the culminating venue for the celebratory military processions known as Triumphs. Victorious generals entered the city by the western Triumphal Gate (Porta Triumphalis) and circumnavigated the Palatine Hill (counterclockwise) before proceeding from the Velian Hill down the Via Sacra and into the Forum
From here they would mount the Capitoline Rise (Clivus Capitolinus) up to the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the summit of the Capitol. Lavish public banquets ensued back down on the Forum. (In addition to the Via Sacra, the Forum was accessed by a number of storied roads and streets, including the Vicus Jugarius, Vicus Tuscus, Argiletum, and Via Nova.)
Critiques | Translate
kabel (1615) 2013-03-23 6:31
Hello, nice perspective down the ancent Roman road. What one sees here is a juxtaposition of old and new with the modern buildings in the background with the ancient Roman Forum ruins in the forground. The sky is beautiful with those big clouds, it looked like a great day to be outside.
Thanks for the very informative notes about the history of the area.
yquem46 (38382) 2013-03-23 6:36
A simple shot but very representative of the Forum in Roma
makes me feel as if I was in the place
A beautiful cloudy sky, good luminosity and natural colors
have a nice WE
SnapRJW (30058) 2013-03-23 6:48
Hello Romano - This is a lovely shot; the sky with the soft tones and the white buildings add really good contrast to the subdued colour palette and add a liveliness to a quiet scene. Very good management and a shot with plenty of interesting detail. Warm regards Rosemary
dta (64142) 2013-03-23 6:58
Ciao Romano ,
Dans plusieurs de tes clichés , tu réussis à bien équilbrer les lumières entre importantes zones d'ombre t zones éclairées , ce qui n'est pas si facile . C'est le cas ici dans cette belle composition , agrémentée d'un fort joli ciel .
Silvio1953 (118258) 2013-03-23 8:27
Ciao Romano, POV originale ed efficace, qui giochi in casa e si vede, bela prospetiva e favoloso cielo, bravo, ciao Silvio
Royaldevon (27545) 2013-03-23 9:29
Non sono mai stato a Roma, ma quello che un sacco che mi manca!
Il vecchio e il nuovo sembrano esistere così comodamente insieme. I dettagli sono nettamente raccolti per la gioia dei vostri spettatori.
Come sempre, il vostro punto di vista è molto ben scelto in modo che non ci siano cavi naturali dal f / g fino a punti di interesse.
Il leggermente adombrato f / g è ben contrastata dalla soleggiata e luminosa b / g.
Avere un bel w / e,
Noel_Byrne (22106) 2013-03-23 10:10
Una bella cattura della maestà prima, e ancora attuale di questo luogo. E 'incredibile vedere un colpo come questo e pensare di millenni di storia e le decisitions importanti che hanno avuto luogo qui. Anche in rovina, si respira ancora un senso di potere e di gloria. Mi piacciono gli altri edifici che colpire di punta sopra i dintorni e, ponendo questa scena molto fermamente nella sua splendida cornice urbana.
Tutto il meglio
cargus (8092) 2013-03-23 10:33
Beautiful composition, beautiful colors, well framed and rendered image well.!
carlo62 (29421) 2013-03-23 12:20
una vista di Roma insolita, sotto un bel cielo, anche se la luce non doveva essere facile, ma il risultato è ottimo.
elenimavrandoni (14241) 2013-03-23 12:53
un giorno in più una foto più da bella Italia!
tanta storia e arte dietro quelle rovine straordinari.
un immagine mitico,magico, un'atmosfera unica e una splendida vista panoramica!
un caro saluto, sempre
williewhistler (13123) 2013-03-23 14:51
Hello Romano, the square format suits your composition very well,with good use being made of the vertical corners to allow the fence to give a good perspective to the scene.
You have handled the light levels very well,it`s a super shot with many interesting features.
Thanks for your visit.
Best regards, Les.
lousat (73947) 2013-03-23 16:41
Ciao Romano,quasi mi vergogno a dirti che avrei dato un colpetto in su alla saturazione perche' la foto e' davvero spettacolare,quasi un dipinto,coi differenti livelli di luce gestiti alla grande e dei dettagli straordinari.Complimenti e buona Domenica,Luciano
divail (8304) 2013-03-23 18:48
Quelle chance vous avez eu de visiter le forum romain sans les foules que j'y ai croisé cet été. J'aurais bien aimé le découvrir au calme, et au frais. La composition est belle, avec les arches et les vieux murs, ainsi que le vieux pavé.
Bonne fin de semaine
Nicou (118102) 2013-03-23 21:20
Superbe image et ocmpo merveilleux quelle perceptive le long de ce mur avec en fonce ces barrières et en fond ces merveilleux édifices grandiose photo.
Bravo et amitié
Kamilutka (8095) 2013-03-24 3:54
another nice shot from beautiful Rome. I like the game of light and shadows. Great colors especially the ones on the background where there is some more light. Good POV and classic composition.
Thanks for sharing
mesutilgim (81368) 2013-03-24 13:31
Very nice capture from Rome with good pov and layout.
Nice photogenic sky crowning the scenery.
Many interesting notes.
TFS and best regards
emka (75075) 2013-03-26 1:58
Again, it is strange that there are no people here. Maybe the entrance ticket cost too much? Interesting to see the Forum from inside. Excellent colours and sharpness.
abmdsudi (41214) 2013-03-27 8:09
What a striking image and the impact rendered, good use of wide lens to greatest effect. Love your low pov and closeness to the subjects. A shot with lots of interest to this Roman ruins and my eye is immediately dragged all over the place and the path provides such a good lead in. The ruins, the colorful bg and the sky really blend so well together, pin sharp and well textured. A picture finely composed in excellent tones and all the right elements are here to transform this into a grand image. An awesome shot of a historic site well taken, Compliments