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The Hverfjall volcano – Lake Myvatn – North Iceland

The Hverfjall volcano cycle began 2500 years ago with a gigantic but brief eruption, which formed the explosion crater (tephra ring ) Hverfjall (also named Hverfell).

The Hverfjall volcano looks like an impact crater with a central uplift which is a peak in the middle of the crater formed by the rock floor being melted by the impact.

Meteorites cause impact craters by smashing into the ground at high velocity. Ejecta is the material that was in the crater before the meteorite hit. It is thrown outside the crater in a blanket onto the surrounding land. One type of ejecta that is long and pointy at the end is called rays. The raised edge of the crater is the rim. The crater walls slope from the rim to the floor, or the flat area inside the crater. Sometimes impact craters will have a central uplift which is a peak in the middle of the crater formed by the rock floor being melted by the impact

Mývatn is a shallow eutrophic lake situated in an area of active volcanism in the north of Iceland, not far from Krafla volcano.
Lake Mývatn was created about 2300 years ago by a large fissure eruption pouring out basaltic lava.

The Mývatn district lies on the western border of the volcanic zone which cuts across north-eastern Iceland from north to south and is an extension of the Mid Atlantic Ridge. All geological formations are quite recent, dating from the Ice Age and postglacial times.

Picture taken from a small plane. RAW format (NEF Nikon format) given in sRVB for TE.

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Additional Photos by Michel Detay (mdetay) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 493 W: 1 N: 1025] (4865)
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