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Nymphenburg Palace
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Nymphenburg Palace (German: Schloss Nymphenburg), i.e. "Nymph's Castle", is a Baroque palace in Munich, Bavaria, southern Germany. The palace was the main summer residence of the rulers of Bavaria.
The palace was commissioned by the prince-electoral couple Ferdinand Maria and Henriette Adelaide of Savoy to the designs of the Italian architect Agostino Barelli in 1664 after the birth of their son Maximilian II Emanuel. The central pavilion was completed in 1675.
Starting in 1701, Max Emanuel, the heir to Bavaria, a sovereign electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, undertook a systematic extension of the palace. Two pavilions were added each in the south and north of Barelli's palace by Enrico Zucalli and Giovanni Antonio Viscardi. Later, the south section of the palace was further extended to form the court stables. For the sake of balance, the orangery was added to the north. Finally, a grand circle (the Schlossrondell) with Baroque mansions (the so-called Kavaliershäuschen – cavalier's lodges) was erected under Max Emanuel's son Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII Albert. Two of the latter's children were born here: Maria Antonia (future Electress of Saxony) in 1724 and Maria Anna Josepha (future Margravine of Baden-Baden) in 1734.
Joseph Effner redesigned the facade of the center pavilion in French Baroque style with pilasters in 1716. Elector Charles Theodore ordered in 1795 to broaden the galleries to the park side. In 1826 Leo von Klenze removed its gables with the electoral coat of arms and created an attic decoration directly under the roof instead.
With the Treaty of Nymphenburg signed in July 1741, Charles Albert allied with France and Spain against Austria. For a long time, the palace was the favourite summer residence of the rulers of Bavaria. King Max I Joseph died there in 1825, and his great-grandson King Ludwig II was born there in 1845.
Today, Nymphenburg is open to the public, but also continues to be a home and chancery for the head of the house of Wittelsbach, currently Franz, Duke of Bavaria. To Jacobites, who trace the line of legitimate British monarchy down through the legal heirs of James II of England, the head of the house of Wittelsbach is the legitimate heir of the Stuart claims to the throne of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; this claim is not being actively pursued.
The palace, together with its park, is now one of the most famous sights of Munich. The baroque facades comprise an overall width of about 700 metres. Some rooms still show their original baroque decoration while others were later redesigned in rococo or neoclassical style.
The Steinerner Saal (Stone Hall) in the central pavilion, with ceiling frescoes by Johann Baptist Zimmermann and F. Zimmermann and decorations by François de Cuvilliés, is an impressive sight. Acting as a grand hall, it occupies over three floors of the central pavilion of the palace. The central ceiling fresco is Helios in his chariot, accompanied by other gods.
North of the Stone Hall, there is the wood-paneled antechamber, the audience chamber decorated with Brussels tapestries and the former bedroom with the so-called Little Beauty Gallery with ladies of Versailles, all rooms were remodeled under Maximilian II Emanuel in the style of the Régence but retain their original Baroque ceilings. Here are on display portraits of the elector and his wife Theresa Kunegunda Sobieska. The bedroom closes the park side, next to it is the Drechsel Cabinet (turnery cabinet) of Maximilian III Joseph, designed by François de Cuvilliés. Three rooms further to the north were created under Charles Theodore with the broadening of the gallery wing. In the first room there are now more portraits of ladies from the Great Gallery of Beauties of Max Emanuel, the second one is decorated with a pile rug with the coats of arms of Bavaria and the Palatinate (known as "coat of arms room"), while the third room contains portraits of Charles Theodore and his both consorts Elisabeth Auguste and Maria Leopoldine.
South of the Stone Hall are inversely to the northern rooms of the main building, the hall with the portrait of Charles Albert, the audience room with the portait of the founder couple Ferdinand Maria and his consort Henriette Adelaide and the Former Bedroom with portraits of Max Emanuel and his consort Theresa Kunegunda. Here too, the original Baroque ceilings have survived. The walls of the so-called lacquer cabinet that adjoins the bedroom are almost completely covered with Chinese panels showing scenes from a Chinese novel. Behind the south gallery are the Writing Cabinet and Antechamber of Elector Charles Theodore, which were created with the broadening of the gallery wings.
In both the North and South Galleries next to the Central Pavilion are vedutes of Bavarian castles. These galleries connect the central pavilion with the southern pavilions and northern pavilions.
The former small dining room of the Inner Southern Pavilion houses the famous attraction Gallery of Beauties of King Ludwig I of Bavaria. On behalf of the king of the court painter Joseph Karl Stieler has portrayed 36 "beautiful" women from all social classes of Munich, the best known of these are the shoemaker's daughter Helene Sedlmayr and Ludwig's longstanding infamous mistress, Lola Montez. Nearby, the Queen's bedroom is to see where on the 25th August 1845, King Ludwig II of Bavaria was born. Its mahagony furnitures were made in 1815 in Munich, unlike the mahagony furnitures for Queen Caroline’s audience room which were made in Paris, same as the furnitures in the Queen's Study. The Outer Southern Pavilion is generally inaccessible.
In the former royal stables in the South Wing is the Carriage Museum (Marstallmuseum), with one of the greatest coach collections in Europe. They also played a part in historical events - the Paris Coronation Coach for example was used for the coronation of Emperor Charles VII in 1742. Among the main attractions of the museum are the magnificent carriages and sleighs of King Ludwig II.
The first floor of the former court stables houses a collection of Nymphenburg porcelain, the factory which, also located in the palace complex, was founded by Maximilian III Joseph. It's handcrafted products are of legendary kind and quality, nowadays said to be comparable to Augarten and Sèvres only. The Nymphenburg Porcelain Manufactory itself is located in one of the houses of the northern roundabouts and can be visited only by written appointment. In the adjoining Outer South Wing of the castle is a restaurant with beer garden.
The Inner Northern Pavilion is generally inaccessible, the Outer Northern Pavilion houses the chapel, whose ceiling painting deals with the life of St. Mary Magdalene. It was already begun in 1702 by Antonio Viscardi from the design by Enrico Zuccalli.
In the North Wing, the Museum of Man and Nature is housed since 1990. The Hubertus Hall upstairs served for concerts. In the adjoining Outer North Wing of the castle is from 1835, the Mary Ward Elementary School, founded by Mary Ward, paved the way for a better education for girls. Mary Ward came after her escape from Rome to Munich in 1627 and was sponsored by Elector Maximilian I. King Ludwig I invited the girls' school finally to the Nymphenburg Palace in 1835.

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Photo Information
  • Copyright: Silvio Sorcini (Silvio1953) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 9589 W: 132 N: 18649] (120566)
  • Genre: Places
  • Medium: Color
  • Date Taken: 2012-12-07
  • Categories: Castles, Architecture
  • Exposure: f/9.0, 1/320 seconds
  • More Photo Info: view
  • Photo Version: Original Version
  • Date Submitted: 2012-12-11 1:41
Viewed: 1127
Points: 38
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Additional Photos by Silvio Sorcini (Silvio1953) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 9589 W: 132 N: 18649] (120566)
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