Jean-Paul Sartre, (1905-1980) born in Paris in 1905, studied at the École Normale Supérieure from 1924 to 1929 and became Professor of Philosophy at Le Havre in 1931. With the help of a stipend from the Institut Français he studied in Berlin (1932) the philosophies of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger. After further teaching at Le Havre, and then in Laon, he taught at the Lycée Pasteur in Paris from 1937 to 1939. Since the end of the Second World War, Sartre has been living as an independent writer.
Sartre is one of those writers for whom a determined philosophical position is the centre of their artistic being. Although drawn from many sources, for example, Husserl's idea of a free, fully intentional consciousness and Heidegger's existentialism, the existentialism Sartre formulated and popularized is profoundly original. Its popularity and that of its author reached a climax in the forties, and Sartre's theoretical writings as well as his novels and plays constitute one of the main inspirational sources of modern literature. In his philosophical view atheism is taken for granted; the "loss of God" is not mourned. Man is condemned to freedom, a freedom from all authority, which he may seek to evade, distort, and deny but which he will have to face if he is to become a moral being. The meaning of man's life is not established before his existence. Once the terrible freedom is acknowledged, man has to make this meaning himself, has to commit himself to a role in this world, has to commit his freedom. And this attempt to make oneself is futile without the "solidarity" of others.
The conclusions a writer must draw from this position were set forth in "Qu'est-ce que la littérature?" (What Is Literature?), 1948: literature is no longer an activity for itself, nor primarily descriptive of characters and situations, but is concerned with human freedom and its (and the author's) commitment. Literature is committed; artistic creation is a moral activity.
While the publication of his early, largely psychological studies, L'Imagination (1936), Esquisse d'une théorie des émotions (Outline of a Theory of the Emotions), 1939, and L'Imaginaire: psychologie phénoménologique de l'imagination (The Psychology of Imagination), 1940, remained relatively unnoticed, Sartre's first novel, La Nausée (Nausea), 1938, and the collection of stories Le Mur (The Wall and other Stories), 1938, brought him immediate recognition and success. They dramatically express Sartre's early existentialist themes of alienation and commitment, and of salvation through art.
His central philosophical work, L'Etre et le néant (Being and Nothingness), 1943, is a massive structuralization of his concept of being, from which much of modern existentialism derives. The existentialist humanism which Sartre propagates in his popular essay L'Existentialisme est un humanisme (Existentialism is a Humanism), 1946, can be glimpsed in the series of novels, Les Chemins de la Liberté (The Roads to Freedom), 1945-49.
Sartre is perhaps best known as a playwright. In Les Mouches (The Flies), 1943, the young killer's committed freedom is pitted against the powerless Jupiter, while in Huis Clos (No Exit), 1947, hell emerges as the togetherness of people.
Sartre has engaged extensively in literary critisicm and has written studies on Baudelaire (1947) and Jean Genet (1952). A biography of his childhood, Les Mots (The Words), appeared in 1964.
Jean-Paul Sartre died on April 15, 1980. Sartre lies buried in Cimetière de Montparnasse in Paris. His funeral was well attended, with estimates of the number of mourners along the two hour march ranging from 15,000 to over 50,000.
From Nobel Lectures, Literature 1901-1967, Editor Horst Frenz, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1969
Critiques | Translate
serp2000 (38980) 2012-08-05 12:20
Great writer... I like his books. Good tribute to Sartre!
Good reason back to his works again. TFS, Ovidiu!
mesutilgim (81578) 2012-08-05 13:05
Nice capture and perfect entry with many interesting and educative notes.
This cemetery in Paris is also one of my most beloved corners, as you can see there almost all the silent evidences of the cultural life of the XXth century.
TFS and best regards
papagolf21 (84146) 2012-08-05 14:25
Bonsoir, cher Ovidiu,
Deux personnages qui ont marqué la littérature française.
Félicitations pour nous présenter leur tombe. Je remarque que de nombreux admirateurs laissent un message de leur passage.
Très bonne soirée.
Budapestman (82620) 2012-08-05 17:06
very nice tribute to Sartre, the composition is attractive and the note is superb, Tfs! Have a nice week! Kellemes hetet kívánok!
PecoBud (3824) 2012-08-05 17:42
Excellent notes, I love learning something new and interesting. Wonderful presentation Ovidiu!!
TFS...........Your Friend from California..........Buddy
pajaran (49784) 2012-08-05 22:44
Vrlo interesantan i dobar tekst o velikom piscu ...
Lepo secanje na Jean Paul Sartre.
Dobar rad, moje cestitke.
Sve najbolje u novoj nedelji koja je pocela.
Very interesting and good article about the great writer ...
Nice memory of Jean Paul Sartre.
Good work, my congratulations.
All the best in the new week began.
gildasjan (41214) 2012-08-06 0:12
Je n'aime pas trop les cimetières mais si c'est pour un hommage à tel personnage alors oui,il fallait mettre cette tombe en image.
Nicou (118372) 2012-08-06 2:14
Très belle iamge et hommage à ce grand homme qui a marqué l'histoire sueprbe iamge intime tout en douceur et qu'il repose en paix.
Bravo et amitié
jhm (136868) 2012-08-06 3:30
A very great man for France and very far there outside.
An excellent tribute with the picture of his tombstone.
Very well done, TFS.
Have a nice day
aliabazari (13473) 2012-08-06 8:20
Vă mulţumim să preţuim acestui mare scriitor şi filozof. Pagina de frumos
în ceea ce priveşte
Graal (96056) 2012-08-06 23:53
an interesting presentation of tomb od J.P.Sartre. Good note and photowork. Photo is well done.
Have a nice day.
maria-v1981 (10814) 2012-08-07 1:26
Very good and intresting notes about Jean-Paul Sartre. This is the ΤΕ to learn all new things.
Have a good day,
Silvio1953 (118527) 2012-08-08 5:00
Ciao Ovidiu, fantastic tribute for great writer, excellent clarity, splendid light and good perspective, very well done my friend, ciao Silvio
jemaflor (82268) 2012-08-21 10:49
Un bel hommage avec cette photo bien cadrée, la lumière à travers les branches est bien rendue, bonne idée de photo.
- Copyright: Ovidiu Sotiriu (Schnappilic) (9690)
- Genre: Places
- Medium: Color
- Date Taken: 2011-08-17
- Categories: Ceremony
- Camera: Canon EOS 450D, 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6 IS EF-S, RAW, 58mm Hoya UV
- Exposure: f/8, 1/160 seconds
- More Photo Info: view
- Photo Version: Original Version
- Theme(s): All Saints Tributes to deceased [view contributor(s)]
- Date Submitted: 2012-08-05 12:14