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Photographer's Note

SUNRISE OVER COPENHAGEN

Early one morning in summer of 2004 the Crystal Symphony sailed into the Copenhagen harbor. I had been giving lectures on a twelve-day cruise of the Symphony, as the ship had plied the waters of the Baltic Sea, visiting Kiel, Stockholm, Helsinki, and St. Petersburg. I’ve been to Copenhagen, several times, including the first time when I was thirteen, and another time to give a physics seminar at the Niels Bohr Institute.

Each time I’ve visited Denmark, I have been keenly aware of the rich legacy of Danish scientists. Four hundred years ago, there had been the astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) who spent several decades compiling data on the motion of the planets. Upon Tycho’s unexpected death, his assistant, the German mathematician/astronomer Johannes Kepler, used the data to formulate the laws of the planets. In the late 17th century Danish astronomer Olas Romer (1644–1710), determined the speed of light in an ingenious experiment, timing eclipses of Jupiter’s moon, Io. In the 20th century, Denmark produced its greatest physicist, Niels Bohr (1885 –1962), who formulated the theory of the hydrogen-atom, and became the father confessor of the pioneers of quantum mechanics. For his work, he was awarded a Nobel Prize in physics. Fifty-four years later, his son, Aage Bohr, would also be awarded a Nobel Prize in physics.

In 2001 I had just begun to experiment with digital photography — cautiously at first — having used film cameras for many years. I transformed the digital image in Photoshop CSII, 1800 pixels/inch (1inch= 2.54 cm), resized the image to 800 pixels on the long (horizontal) sided. Finally I saved it at a quality of 8/12. This recipe has frequently given me the maximum size allowed by TE.

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