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The history of Zagreb dates as far back as 1094 when the Hungarian King Ladislaus founded a diocese. Alongside the bishop's see the canonical settlement Kaptol developed north of the Cathedral, as did the fortified settlement Gradec on the neighbouring hill. Today the latter is Zagreb's Upper Town (Gornji Grad) and is one of the best preserved urban nuclei in Croatia. Both settlements came under Tatar attack in 1242. As a sign of gratitude for offering him a safe haven from the Tatar the Croatian and Hungarian King Bela IV bestowed Gradec with a Golden Bull, which offered its citizens exemption from county rule and autonomy, as well as its own judicial system. According to legend, Bela left Gradec a cannon, under the condition that it be fired every day so that it did not rust. Since 1st January 1877 the cannon is fired from the Lotrščak Tower on Grič to mark midday.
The main square of the Gornji Grad is dominated by the Gothic church of St. Mark's. It was built at the end of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th century and a late Baroque bell tower was added later.
Fighting ensued between the Zagreb diocese and the free sovereign town of Gradec for land and mills. Sometimes also for political reasons. The term Zagreb was used for these two separate boroughs in the 16th century. Zagreb was then seen as the political centre and the capital of Croatia and Slavonia. In 1850 the town was united under its first mayor - Josip Kaufman.
was not until the 17th century and Nikola Frankopan that Zagreb was chosen as the seat of the Croatian viceroys in 1621. At the invitation of the Croatian Parliament the Jesuits came to Zagreb and built the first grammar school, the St. Catherine's Church and monastery. In 1669 they founded an academy where philosophy, theology and law were taught.
During the 17th and 18th centuries Zagreb was badly devastated by fire and the plague. In 1776 the royal council (government) moved from Varaždin to Zagreb and during the reign of Joseph II Zagreb became the headquarters of the Varaždin and Karlovac general command.
The first railway line to connect Zagreb with Zidani Most and Sisak was opened in 1862 and in 1863 Zagreb received a gasworks. The Zagreb waterworks was opened in 1878 and the first horse-drawn tramcar was used in 1891. The construction of the railway lines enabled the old suburbs to merge gradually into Donji Grad, characterized by a regular block pattern that prevails in Central European cities. This bustling core hosts many imposing buildings, monuments, and parks as well as a multitude of museums, theatres and cinemas. An electric power plant was erected in 1907 and development flourished 1880-1914 after the earthquake in Zagreb when the town received the characteristic layout it has today.
Working class quarters emerged between the railway and the Sava, whereas the construction of residential quarters on the hills of the southern slopes of Medvednica was completed between the two World Wars.

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Additional Photos by George Rumpler (Budapestman) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 8900 W: 3 N: 20435] (82620)
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