This man was a Buddhist priest of the Shingon sect, who sought Buddhahood in the flesh through self-mummification.
Apparently hundreds attempted it, but only a few succeeded. In this small Buddhist temple in Sakata, Kaikoji, there are two such Shingon mummies.
According to Wikipedia:
"Bodies purported to be those of self-mummified monks are exhibited in several Japanese shrines, and it has been claimed that the monks, prior to their death, stuck to a sparse diet made up of salt, nuts, seeds, roots, pine bark, and urushi tea. Some of them were buried alive in a pine-wood box full of salt."
A video of inside the temple and the mummies:
(blatantly going against the 'no photography' rule at the temple... I sneaked some photos when the guide left the room ;) )
There is a discussion thread about this here
If you are offended by this image or find it disrespectful, I apologise.
Post-processing: Adjusting brightness a little, cropped and resized for TE.
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