The Karnak Temple Complex — usually called simply Karnak — comprises a vast conglomeration of ruined temples, chapels, pylons and other buildings, notably the Great Temple of Amen and a massive structure begun by Pharaoh Amenhotep III (ca. 1391-1351 BC). It is located near Luxor, some 500 km south of Cairo, in Egypt. The area around Karnak was the ancient Egyptian Ipet-isut ("The Most Selected of Places") and the main place of worship of the Theban Triad with the god Amun as its head. It is part of the monumental city of Thebes. The Karnak complex takes its name from the nearby (and partly surrounded) modern village of el-Karnak, some 2.5 km north of Luxor.
The complex is a vast open-air museum and the largest ancient religious site in the world. It is probably the second most visited historical site in Egypt, second only to the Giza Pyramids near Cairo. It consists of four main parts (precincts), of which only the largest, the Precinct of Amun-Re, is open to the general public. The term Karnak is often understood as being the Precinct of Amun-Re only, as this is the only part most visitors normally see. The three other parts, the Precinct of Montu, the Precinct of Mut and the dismantled Temple of Amenhotep IV, are closed to the public. There also are a few smaller temples and sanctuaries located outside the enclosing walls of the four main parts, as well as several avenues of human and ram-headed sphinxes connecting the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Amun-Re, and Luxor Temple.
The key difference between Karnak and most of the other temples and sites in Egypt is the length of time over which it was developed and used. Construction of temples started in the Middle Kingdom and continued through to Ptolemaic times. Approximately thirty pharaohs contributed to the buildings, enabling it to reach a size, complexity, and diversity not seen elsewhere. Few of the individual features of Karnak are unique, but the size and number of features are overwhelming.
One of most famous aspects of Karnak, is the Hypostyle Hall in the Precinct of Amun-Re, a hall area of 50,000 sq ft (5,000 m2) with 134 massive columns arranged in 16 rows. 122 of these columns are 10 meters tall, and the other 12 are 21 meters tall with a diameter of over three meters. The architraves on top of these columns weigh an estimated 70 tons. These architraves may have been lifted to these heights using levers. This would be an extremely time-consuming process and would also require great balance to get to such great heights. A common alternative theory is that there were large ramps made of sand mud brick or stone and the stones were towed up the ramps. If they used stone for the ramps they would have been able to build the ramps with much less material. The top of the ramps would presumably have either wooden tracks or cobblestones to tow the megaliths on. There is an unfinished pillar in an out of the way location that indicated how they finished it. The finish carving was done after the drums were put in place. Several experiments moving megaliths with ancient technology were done at other locations - some of them are listed here.
The history of the Karnak complex is largely the history of Thebes. The city does not appear to have been of any significance before the Eleventh Dynasty, and any temple building here would have been relatively small and unimportant, with any shrines being dedicated to the early god of Thebes, Montu. The earliest artifact found in the area of the temple is a small, eight-side from the Eleventh Dynasty, which mentions Amun-Re. Amun (sometimes called Amen) was long the local god of Thebes. He was identified with the Ram and the Goose. The Egyptian meaning of Amen is "hidden" or the "hidden god".
Major construction work in the Precinct of Amun-Re took place during the Eighteenth dynasty. Thutmose I erected an enclosure wall connecting the Fourth and Fifth pylons, which comprise the earliest part of the temple still standing in situ. Construction of the Hypostyle Hall may have also began during the eighteenth dynasty, though most building was undertaken under Seti I and Ramesses II. Almost every Pharaoh added something to the temple. Merenptah commemorated his victories over the Sea Peoples on the walls of the Cachette Court, the start of the processional route to the Luxor Temple.
The last major change to Precinct of Amun-Re's layout was the addition of the first pylon and the massive enclosure walls that surround the whole Precinct, both constructed by Nectanebo I.
In 323 AD, Constantine the Great recognised the Christian religion, and in 356 ordered the closing of pagan temples throughout the empire. Karnak was by this time mostly abandoned, and Christian churches were founded amongst the ruins, the most famous example of this is the reuse of the Festival Hall of Thutmose III's central hall, were painted decorations of saints and Coptic inscriptions can still be seen.
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gillou01 (487) 2010-03-07 1:08
nice composition of karnak people and two people in back ground give enormous proportions at columns.
have a good day
pajaran (52038) 2010-03-07 1:41
Pozdrav iz bratske Srbije, dan je poceo mnogo hladan, sada sija sunce ali je i dalje hladno.
Dobar uvodni tekst u fotografiju, dobro ste prikazali ovom lepom fotrofrafijom, kompletan rad, svidja mi se, bravo.
Imajte lep uspesan nedeljni dan, Paja.
PixelTerror (0) 2010-03-07 1:47
As a great fan of ancient Egypt I can't miss that, nice big columns, actually huge comparing them to the tiny people you ahve wisely included to provide scale, even these superb hieroglyphs are bigger than them !
have a nice day JY
sandpiper (6788) 2010-03-07 3:32
I was there last February, an amzing place. You have captured the essence of this magic place in this image. The massive columns and the tiny people; a perfect composition.
adramad (37997) 2010-03-07 11:33
He did not know your gallery and I see great pictures that I love. This one I choose is a wonderful capture of the impressive columns of Karnak, I like the incorporation of those two people who give the idea of gigantic size. The color is great, good management and high quality light that allows you to enjoy with all the decoration of the columns.
xavshot (69835) 2010-03-07 11:45
belle image. J'aime les nombreux détails et la présence des deux personnages qui donne une idée de la hauteur de ces colonnes. Beau travail.
yeln (11504) 2010-03-07 12:21
vidim, da si dejaven ta trenutek pri pisnju. enako sem tudi sam pri tem delu a sem spregledal to tvojo zelo kontrastno sliko.
dobre barve, dobra ostrina le ljudje so premajhni!
carlosmarin (11954) 2010-03-10 3:14
I am also in love with Egypt and its culture.
Wonderful POV of huge columns, with the two people in the background, to add dimension.
Great detail of the decoration of the columns with hieroglyphics and cartridges.
Angshu (55665) 2010-03-11 0:58
I like this image, with the massive columns of red stone, with fine artwork and hieroglyphic inscriptions and the tiny couple of people, almost lost in the jungle of the pillars. The slice of blue sky between the pillars is also very attractive. Appreciate your informative note. Good work!
mkamionka (30618) 2010-03-12 7:52
very nice catch. The people in the distance really make the composition very interesting. The place is very impressive. I had the pleasure to be there but don't have good pictures from there. This hall with columns was my favourite I believe very photogenic but we were very late there and it was rather dark.
Beautiful place really originally introduced.
serp2000 (39992) 2010-03-13 4:41
Good title! I like sharpness and colours! Fine DOF!
The people shows a scale of this columns! TFS!
Welcome to Russia!
I hope, you will get big estetic pleasure!
Greetings from Ural,
SWEETFREEDOM (22696) 2010-03-22 4:34
looking into your gallery it strucks me this shot.
It's a very original way to present this famous place. I like your p.o.v. that highlight hieroglyphs.
The idea to capture also two people in the foreground is excellent it gives us real dimemsnions of this columns.
kordinator (17515) 2010-05-14 4:23
Prelepa kompozicija stare egipatske gradjevine i fenomenalna nota.
Prelepi stubovi na koje pada kontra svetlost.
Par u dnu fotografije daje odlican opis kolika je to gradjevina.
Mnogo mi se dopada tvoj rad.